The industrial revolution took place in different countries in different periods, but in general, the period, when these changes occurred, started from the second half of the 18th century and continued throughout the 19th century. The industrial revolution was characterized by rapid growth of productive forces based on the heavy machinery manufacturing and the adoption of capitalism as the world’s dominant economic system.
The industrial revolution not only led to the mass use of machinery, but to changing the entire structure of society. It was accompanied by a rapid increase in labor productivity, rapid urbanization, rapid economic growth, and rapid increase in the population’s living standard. The industrial revolution allowed for the time of only 3-5 generations to move from an agrarian society (where most of the population lived from farming) to the industrial one.
It should be mentioned that The industrial revolution was accompanied by and closely associated with the industrial revolution in agriculture, leading to a radical land and labor productivity growth in the agricultural sector.
The industrial revolution began in Great Britain in the last third of the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th century adopted a comprehensive manner, covering then other countries of Europe and America.
It is believed that the export of capital from overseas British colonies was one of the sources of capital accumulation in the motherland, which contributed to the industrial revolution in Great Britain and made this country the leader of the global industrial development. At the same time, a similar situation in other countries (e.g. Spain, Portugal) has not led to more rapid economic development. In addition, the industry has successfully developed in a number of countries without colonies, for example, in Sweden, Prussia, the United States.
It is believed that the main reason why the industrial revolution and, subsequently, scientific, innovative revolution began in Europe, was in the behavioral stereotypes of European people: namely, in the attitude of the society to women. A European man, in general, had to distinguish himself before a woman, so she chose him as a marriage partner, while the East mentality waited for the same individual behavior to a much lesser extent.
The woman in the East, as the more deprived, was not an object of competition, required to prove man’s superiority, including in the intellectual by encouraging the poet, scholar, astronomer, architect or a brilliant scientist or inventor.
During the 17th century, England became the European leader by growth of capitalistic manufactories, and later in the global trade and colonial economy. By the mid-18th century, England became the leading capitalist country. In terms of economic development, it has surpassed all other European countries, with all the necessary prerequisites for the entry into a new stage of social and economic development, which was the heavy machinery manufacturing.
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