Have you ever thought about the origin of the universe? How did our world appear? In my opinion, these questions have been bothering the humanity for thousands of years. These questions are the most important ones from the point of view of philosophy and physics as its major part. There are many conceptions, which try to explain the origin of the universe. Unfortunately, it is impossible to find the exact answer. The absolute number of scientists say that the Big Band theory is one of the most trustworthy ones. This cosmological theory explains the origin of the universe relying on the idea that the universe existed in a high-temperature and high-density state. When the temperature and density reached their critical point, the universe expanded into smaller elements.
I would like to observe this problem attentively, because it is very relevant and thought provoking.
Extrapolation of astronomic research backwards in time demonstrates that the universe expanded from the initial high-temperature and high-density state. The entire energy and matter had enormous temperature and density. Modern physicists do not have a single point of view about the actual cause of this state. One of the most logical hypotheses is gravitational singularity. The term ‘Big Bang’ in its narrow meaning is used to define the moment in time when the universe began its expansion. According to the latest calculations, the Big Bang occurred approximately 13.8 billion years ago. The broad meaning of the Big Bang touches upon the explanation of the expansion of the universe and the structure and origin of the matter with the help of nucleosynthesis.
It is interesting that scientists do not know anything about the initial state of the universe. They think that the size of the initial universe was very small. Moreover, none of the existing physical laws functioned in the initial universe. One of the main results of the Big Bang is that the current state of the universe differs from its previous and future state. The universe is expanding all the time; therefore, its density and temperature are always different. Nowadays, scientists speak about the gradual cooling of the universe.
I would like to write a few words about the chronology of the Big Bang. The Big Bang or the explosion was very short. The entire matter of the universe appeared 1 second after the Big Bang. At that moment, the temperature of the universe was about 10 billion °C. It was enough for the origin of protons and neutrons. The chemical elements originated 3 minutes later. When the temperature was 1 billion °C, the first nuclei originated. Protons combined with neutrons and formed helium and deuterium nuclei. So long as protons and neutrons were close to one another, the universe resembled a nucleus of a huge star, which was the place of the synthesis of chemical elements. More than 500 thousand years later occurred the first nebulas, then galaxies, and separate stars.
Scientists do not know about the future of the universe and its expansion. The Big Bang theory does not answer all questions connected with the evolution of the universe. It is incomplete and requires further development. Moreover, there are many white spots in this theory. According to it, the universe should expand with the same speed all the time. The reality is different, because its expansion has become faster recently and it is hard to explain it relying on the norms of the Big Bang theory.
I should say that there are many critics of this theory. The most well-known of them claim that the universe is a static thing and it cannot change. It does not have the beginning and ending. Nevertheless, it is interesting that nearly every influential religious organization (including Christianity and Islam) supports this theory, because its norms are not contrary to the religious concepts of the creation of the world.
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