Disaster Preparedness Research Paper

Disaster preparedness is a complex of activities focused on preparation to potentially hazardous factors or conditions in order to protect people and property from damaging and ensure effective reaction to the potential risks.

This complex includes preparation for a disaster or emergency situation (e.g., evacuation, quarantine, mass decontamination, etc.), material and psychological support for the disaster victims and involvement in the recovery works after natural and man-made disasters, as well as to maintain health, reduce damage to the environment and material losses, should they occur.

Disaster preparedness activity includes:

  • monitoring and forecasting emergencies;
  • rational allocation of the productive forces on the territory of the country, taking into account natural and technogenic safety;
  • prevention, to the possible extent, of some adverse and dangerous natural phenomena and factors by systematically reducing their growing destructive potential;
  • prevention of emergency and man-made disasters by increasing the technological safety of production processes and the operational reliability of the equipment;
  • design and implementation of engineering and technical measures to prevent emergency situations sources, mitigation, protection of people and materiel;
  • preparation of infrastructure and life-support systems for operation in emergency situations;
  • declaration of industrial safety;
  • licensing of dangerous industrial objects;
  • liability insurance for damage resulting from operation of hazardous production facilities;
  • carrying out expert examination on prevention of emergency situations;
  • State supervision and monitoring of natural and technogenic safety;
  • public awareness of the potential natural and technological hazards in the territory;
  • preparation of the population for protection against emergencies.

Disaster preparedness is a search-and-rescue and other urgent activities in emergency situations for saving lives and maintaining human health, reducing damage to the environment and material losses as well as the containment of the emergency sites, termination of their hazards.

Search-and-rescue is being carried out in order to find and release the victims, providing them medical assistance and their evacuation to hospitals.

Search-and-rescue includes:

  • Exploration of traffic routes and work sites;
  • localization and suppression of fires in traffic routes and work sites;
  • elimination or suppression to the lowest possible level of obstacles and emergency hazards for conducting search-and-rescue;
  • search and retrieve of the injured from damaged and burning buildings, gassy, flooded and smoky rooms, out of the rubble and locked the premises;
  • provision of first aid and medical assistance to the victims and their evacuation to medical institutions;
  • Evacuation of the population from the hazard zones;
  • Medical assistance to the people, veterinary treatment of animals, decontamination, disinfection of equipment, protective clothing, land and facilities, food, water, food commodities, and animal feed.

Rescue work is being carried out in the shortest possible time. This is due to the need to provide timely medical assistance to affected and reduce the destruction and casualties as they may increase as a result of exposure to secondary damaging factors (fire, explosion, flooding, etc.).

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