Ulcerous colitis is a large bowel chronic recurrent disease of unknown aetiology, being characterized by hemorragic-festering inflammation of the large bowel with development of local and system complications.
Try free sample research papers on the topic to learn that exact data about prevalence of ulcerous colitis is difficult to get because often easy cases remain untaken into account, especially in the initial period of disease. These patients, as a rule, are observed in the unspecialized ambulatory establishments and are difficult to account.
Ulcerous colitis is most widely widespread in the urbanized countries, in particular in Europe and North America. In these regions, the frequency of origin of ulcerous colitis (primary morbidity) veries from 4 to 20 cases on 100 000 population, averaging 8-10 cases on 100 000 habitants in a year. Prevalence of ulcerous colitis (quantity of patients) is 40-117 patients on 100 000 habitants with the most number of cases on the age of 20-40. The second peak of morbidity is registered in the senior age-related group after 55. The greatest indexes of death rate are marked during the first year of progression of the disease because of cases with extremely heavy quick development and ten years after the beginning due to development in a number of the patients colorectal cancer.
The role of environmental factors, in particular, smoking, remains unclear. It is shown in numerous epidemiology researches that ulcerous colitis is more often in non-smokers. It even allowed to try nicotine as a cure. People undergone appendectomy have a less risk to become ill with ulcerous colitis, similarly as the persons, exposed to excessive physical activities. The role of dietary factors at ulcerous colitis is considerably less, than at chronic cicatrizing enteritis. As compared to healthy persons diet, that of the patients, suffering an ulcerous colitis, contains less food fibres and more carbohydrates. In anamnesis of the patients with ulcerous colitis, the cases of child’s infectious diseases are more often, than in general population.
Today, the exact aetiology of ulcerous colitis is unknown. Three basic conceptions are discussed:
- The disease is caused by direct influence of some exogenous environmental factors that are not specified yet. An infection is considered the principal reason.
- Ulcerous colitis is an autoimmune disease. In the case of genetic predisposition, after triggering one or a few starting factors, starts the cascade of the mechanisms directed against the body own antigens. An analogical model is characteristic for other autoimmune diseases.
- This is a disease conditioned by the disbalance of the immune system of gastrointestinal tract. With this background, the influence of various unfavorable factors results in an excessive inflammatory respond that is due to inherited or acquired disorders in the adjusting mechanisms of the immune system.
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