The Second Epistle of John Research Paper

Introduction

The second Epistle of John is the 63th book of the Bible. It’s the shortest part of New Testament, which consists of only 13 verses. The word “epistle” derives from the Greek language and is translated like “letter”. In the Bible Epistles compose a group of books of the New Testament. There is a version that Epistles were written like the letters in the beginning and that is why they got such a name. The word “epistle” is used sometimes not only for the books of the New Testament. It can refer to the open letters, written by the high religious authorities even nowadays.

Despite its small size The Second Epistle of John raises a lot of questions among scholars. There are many controversial issues concerning this book. The authorship of this epistle is a subject of loud disputes. The dates it was written do not cohere with the dates it was composed. There are different versions about the addressee of the Epistle. In my work I will try to study these doubtful issues and their possible influence impact of the Epistle to the Christianity.

The Authorship

The Second Epistle of John is imputed to John, one of the twelve Apostles though nowadays this authorship and even the person of John himself is put under the doubt. Continue reading “The Second Epistle of John Research Paper”

Behavior Observation Research Paper

Human relations, being very complicated, still can be structured and systematized. Human society represents a complicated structure where each individual occupies his own place and has his own social status. Such a structuration of society may be observed everywhere, in all spheres of human life, from an average family to the most sophisticated political institution. Moreover, nowadays human relations gets to be more and more complicated and the structuration of society often coincides with the creation of interest groups which stand on their own ground and which views and beliefs may be different from the rest of the society. At the same time, each individual remains independent and playing a particular role in the society regardless his/her belonging to any social group but obviously such the importance of an individual belong to influential social group increases dramatically that, nonetheless, does not change social differences between all members of the society. Continue reading “Behavior Observation Research Paper”

Research Paper on CSR and Competitive Advantage

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the changed landscape of contemporary business has the power to drive a firm’s competitiveness and increase its returns as well as long-term prospects. A company’s CSR exerts impact on the possibility of sustainable development that in turn can have influence on the company’s business prospects.

Sustainable development (SD) has been is evaluated against three interrelated dimensions – social, environmental, and economic (Stevens, 2005, p.1). It is defined by the Global Community Assessment Centre (GCAC) as “a sound balance among the interactions designed to create a healthy economic growth, preserve environmental quality, make wise use of our resources, and enhance social benefits.” Continue reading “Research Paper on CSR and Competitive Advantage”

OSHA Research Paper

OSHA stands for The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the US Department of Labor Agency. It has been created by the US Congress under the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act and signed by Richard Nixon in 1970. The primary goal of OSHA is to prevent and reduce all possible work-related injuries, sicknesses and deaths through the workplace safety and health regulations. OSHA applies to absolutely every place of employment and organization that hires people and can possibly have injuries at the workplace. Continue reading “OSHA Research Paper”

Group Training Needs Analysis

I would like to start by saying that in early 1990s many large public relations and advertising companies in UK employed occupational experts to conduct a teambuilding working workshop to identify issues inhibiting the optimum performance of their senior management team. The typical 1-day workshop used the teamwork exercises. The individual styles of team members and the dynamics and interactions of this intact team were identified. In the following essay I will speak about why an individual may not be performing his job as effectively as he could from the following 1- individual reasons, 2- interpersonal reasons, 3- organization reasons. Continue reading “Group Training Needs Analysis”

Suicide Risk Assessment Research

Introduction

Suicide has been something that people had committed since the time of human inception ssesnd ever since there had been made approaches to remedy the situation and motivate people to live. Various therapies had been proposed by doctors and philosophers around the world to allow suicidal patients to effectively overcome their obsession with suicidal thoughts. In the following essay I will speak about one of the suicidal clients and explore the formal approach to handling suicidal clients in a greater detail.

Profile and description of a suicidal client: Assessment

I would like to start by saying that the patient, Mark, a 62-year-old white male, currently has several problems that need to be addressed simultaneously in order to ameliorate his health. One first of all needs to assure that he quits smoking, which is a truly serious problem for a person of his age. He is a middle class widower living on his own. He had two married children (son and daughter) who never call him or pay him a visit. Three years ago his wife died of cancer and ever since he had different obsessive thoughts about committing a suicide and leaving this life as early as possible. Continue reading “Suicide Risk Assessment Research”

Judaism and Christianity Research Paper

Introduction

Judaism, in contrast to Christianity does not make strong accent on the life after death and on the place the soul goes after a person dies. All the teaching of Christianity is based on the idea of reward or punishment, which must befall the person after death. Judaism, which became the source for Christianity has much less mentions about afterlife and reward and punishment. Secret texts of Judaism scarcely talk about afterlife while all Christian writings are filled in with the ideas of afterlife rendering. This can be explained by the very essence of Judaism, which centers on the here and now and teaches people to live right and conscious living not in the fear of punishment or in the anticipation of the reward, but rather directed by higher inner motives and principles. At the same time the ideas of the afterlife reward is in Christianity emerged as a compensation for the sufferings people face during their human existence. Continue reading “Judaism and Christianity Research Paper”

Economic Development Analysis Research Paper

Introduction

Interrelation of politics and economics is inevitable. Better development of political structure of a country results in more effective functioning of state economy and vice versa. Ineffective government policy, inability to provide stability in the country damages economy, which certainly needs a sound background for its development. Nowadays two main ways of economic development are known in the world. They are planned economy represented by the example of former Soviet Union and countries that have been a part of it, and market economy by the example of modern developed countries, such as the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany and others. The conflict between communism, which stated that all people should be equal, and capitalism, which strives for maximum profitability, is still a subject of many heated debates. However, history proved inconsistence of communism, which resulted in the collapse of one of the larges countries in the world – the Soviet Union. However, not only Soviet Union was a communistic state, other countries, including the ones that will be discussed in this study were also communistic; and only China managed to preserve communism for a rather long period of time. Both Albania and Czechoslovakia, which does not exist any more, were communistic states, thus, their economic developed is somewhat different than of those countries, which have never been communistic. So, why does economy depend on politics? First of all economy can develop only when political situation is stable, otherwise, any economic ventures will be too risky even to start. Political regime preconditions economic developed, because under communism economy is planned, and under democracy economy is based on the laws of free market. Of course government continues to influence its development; however, this influence is only effective when economy needs it, in all other cases it can function by itself. Continue reading “Economic Development Analysis Research Paper”

Philosophy of Mind Research Paper

Part 1.

Fred Dretske uses information-theoretic approach to semantics. His theory explains how physical things possess the ability to represent. The theory is based on the assumption that physical entities are able to occupy states, which are connected with physical world. He uses contentful mental states for explaining human behaviour. According to his theory, the content of mental states is responsible for human behaviour. Dretske uses indicators and representations. He states that representation is an indication, which is attributed to some subject. Representation is a function to indicate X, choosing it from many things, which could have been indicated. Only indicators, which have a function of indicating some condition of the world, may become representations. This can be explained by the fact that mere indicators do not possess the ability to misinterpret. “An indicator is given its indicator function by being converted into a switch for behaviour.” (Dretske, 88) According to Dretske recruitment is responsible for turning an indication into representation. For example, a cat hears a sound when the food is put in its place and it distinguishes this sound from many other sounds. When some internal mechanisms make the cat distinguish this sound from many others the cat has representation of this sound.

Dretske himself defines two charges, which threaten indicator semantics. He calls this charges distality and disjunction. Distalilty problem deals with defining what is identified by indicators.

Disjunction problem deals with time continuum. Indication is switched to representation under condition that indicator is saved in the memory correctly and it does not change its value in the external world. For example, once having learnt the word cow we use it for representation of all cows. Till conditions do not change our representation will be correct, but as external conditions change, we will meet a problem. If we turn to example with cat, who hears the sound of found when it is put in the place. If we put small stone on the same place the sound will be indicated in a same way as it would have happened with food and it will have the same representation value as food did. Dretske puts much effort to explain possible difficulties, which arise when applying his theory, and I believe his arguments to be quite convincing.

Part 2.

Dennett rejects this thesis and gives his alternative interpretation. He developed his own “multiple drafts” model of consciousness. Dennett denies the Cartesian Theater of the Mind. Dennett used the term Cartesian Theater to underline a defining aspect of Cartesian materialism, which is often used in materialistic theories of mind. Dennett states that: “Cartesian materialism is the view that there is a crucial finish line or boundary somewhere in the brain, marking a place where the order of arrival equals the order of “presentation” in experience because what happens there is what you are conscious of. […] the persuasive imagery of the Cartesian Theater keeps coming back to haunt us — laypeople and scientists alike — even after its ghostly dualism has been denounced and exorcized.” (Dennett, p.107)

According to this theory all the perceptions come to the consciousness all together and in this way form a single mind. His theory of “Multiple Drafts” assumes that his perceptions are not joined together and pass through the brain separately in the form of drafts or possibilities. The mind derives from the combination of these drafts. (Dennett, 1991)

The data about the split brain causing double consciousness he explains by the damage of the links between left and right hemispheres the patients get during the treatment (Dennett, 1991). During the treatment of some mental diseases, epilepsy, for example, the hemispheres lose wires of interaction between them and this finally causes the split. “There are more than a few anecdotes about such ingenious jury-rigs invented on the spot by patients with split brains, but we should treat them with caution. They might be what they appear to be: cases exhibiting the deftness with which the brain can discover and implement autostimulatory strategies to improve its internal communications in the absence of the ‘desired’ wiring. But they might also be the unwittingly embroidered fantasies of researchers hoping for just such evidence.”(Dennett, 198) Dennett states that the center of consciousness found in the right hemisphere of some patients appears there only after the operations when ties between two hemispheres are damaged and that disconnected right hemisphere possesses nothing but a transitory consciousness. At the same time he states that the conciseness, which appears in the right hemisphere, is identical to the consciousness of the left one. (Dennett, 1991) In this case both hemispheres must have a transitional consciousness but the experiments show that they don not (Gazzaniga, 1970; Bogen, 1985) Dennett rejects double consciousness theory, as he states “not because ‘consciousness is only in the left hemisphere’ and not because it could not be the case that someone found himself or herself in such a pickle, but simply because it is not the case that commissurotomy leaves in its wake organizations both distinct and robust enough to support such a separate self (Dennett, 426).

Speaking about mistakes in perception Orwellian and Stalinesque give different explanations of this phenomenon. Orwellian explains mistakes in recall by interference, while Stalinesque states that they occur during perception. Orwellian states that all the mistakes appear after the object is saved in the memory. He believes that perception is always right and makes an exact reflection of reality but, as soon as the process of perception is finished and information is saved as a memory past experience can interfere with these memories and change them. That is the reason a person does not recollect things right. Stalinesque presents another point of view on the subject. He believes that mistakes occur during the very process of perception. He states that information is perceived inaccurately and later inaccurate memories are saved. There are some problems with both approaches. In Orwellian’s case it is difficult to distinguish a type when memories are changed to the wrong ones. When it comes to Stalinesque, the question makes us wonder about the reasons of wrong perception.

Dennett rejects the mind to be a countable thing and calls it a mere abstraction. On the other hand, there are cases, when people survived having only one left hemisphere functioning. If to follow Dennett’s theory, these people would not have mind at all, but researchs show that they do have mind. In addition, Dennett’s theory of “Multiple Drafts” can not give reasonable explanations of different kinds of dissociation of consciousness. This happens because the theory does not make any distinction between real and apparent streams of consciousness.

Part 3.

There are several theories, which explain the origin of our mental states content. One group of scholars states that content of the mental states depends on the experience a person gets being alone, i.e. this content does not belong to the environment. Other group of scientists believes that external factors partially influence the content of our mental states. The last theory got the name externalism. Tyler Burge, one of the main proponents of this theory stresses an important role of the environment of the content of human mental state. As he states, “individuating many of a person or animal’s mental kinds… is necessarily dependent on relations that the person bears to the physical, or in some cases social, environment” (Burge 1988, 650).

This view also favors anti-individualism, Burge insisted on this notion because he was preoccupied with the sources of individuation of content rather than with the location of the content. Burge uses hypothetical example in order to support his thesis. He bases his examples on the thought experiment about the Twin Earth initiated by Hilary Putnam. Inspired by Putnam’s thought experiences, Burge gives hypothetical examples about arthritis and Twin Earth in order to support his thesis. In the example with arthritis Burge concludes that content of the mind depends on conventional meanings, which are determined by linguistic community. An example with the Twin Mind proves that thought depends on physical environment. Burge’s anti-individualism has provokes loud disputes among scientists. Some adherents of externalism reject the existence of a priory knowledge. They believe that content of human mind can be achieved only through the interaction with the environment. “For example, to know whether we are having water thoughts or twater (twin-earth “water”) thoughts we may have to conduct an investigation into the chemical composition of the stuff we call ‘water’.” (Ludlow, 89)In this case we cannot count on a priory knowledge any more.

A number of scholars argue Burge’s views. For example, McKinsey believes that externalism can undermine authoritative knowledge of people about their thought content. Fodor states that Burge’s theory does not explain the way in which mental states cause behavior. (Fodor, 1991) In his response to the proponents, Burge states that he does not see any controversy with anti-individualism and ability to know the content of our mental states.

There are several possible solutions for this dilemma, which do not reject the theory of externalism. In the first case scholars reject the very concept of a priori self-knowledge and believe that self-knowledge is only a part of empirical investigation. According to this view, argued for example by Norah Martin, knowledge of our mental states may be partial, and may be in error at times, but we are nevertheless in a kind of privileged relation towards our mental states because we are usually in a better position than others to investigate our own mental states.

(Ludlow, 116) Another group of scientists states that in reality there is no controversy between self-knowledge and externalism. They state that these two notions supplement each other. Davidson, Burge and Heil share such position. (Bure, Davidson, Hail) They all believe that second-order thought content is already fixed on the environment. For example, when the person thinks that he thinks that the water is wet, he already thinks about the type of water he has in his environment.

The group of authors, who do not agree with explanations given by the followers of compatibility, challenge their explanations. Boghossian, for example, argues that slow-switching can be a good reason again computability of self-knowledge and extremism. Slow-switching is described like a phenomenon, when agent’s environment is switched without his knowing about it. Finally, new environment challenges ideas about the environment, which agent had before. Using Burge’s example, we can talk about fiction scenario when a person is moved to Twin-Earth without knowing about it.

Without knowing about the change of the environment a person will think about the environment as about one he used to know. Only after some time his thought about water will be replaced by the thought about twater. In this case we can talk about slow-switching. Ludlow restricts this example by talking not only about fiction scenarios but also using examples from our everyday life. For example when a person knows certain meaning of a certain word he will most probably use and understand the word in this very meaning until some time passes and he starts using the meaning, which the word has in his new environment. To see this, just consider the case of someone who defers to his language community for the individuating conditions of the word ‘chickory’ and who moves from England to the United States without realizing that ‘chickory’ has a different meaning in those two locations. Then, as the agent continues to defer to his immediate language community, the content of the term ‘chickory’ will shift. (Ludlow, 119) The phenomenon of slow-switching is used in order to undermine compitability of self-knowledge and externalism. As states Boghossian, “Burge’s self- verifying judgments do not constitute genuine knowledge. hat other reason is there for why our slowly transported thinker will not know tomorrow what he is said to know directly and authoritatively today?” (Boghossian, p.44 ). Externalism is an interesting view on the nature of the content of our mind. Burge and those, who share his position, give some convincing arguments to support their thesis. On the other hand, controversy, which arises if we apply Burge’s anti-individualism to all kinds of content of the mind, shows that this theory has some weak points. I believe that environment has an important role in forming the content of our mind but I do not think it to be the only source of this content.

References:
1. Burge, Tyler. “Individualism and the Mental”,
Midwest Studies in Philosophy 4:73-122, 1979.
2. Burge, Tyler. “Individualism and Self-Knowledge”, Journal of Philosophy 85:649-63, 1988.
3. Dennett, C. Daniel. Consciousness Explained, Little, Brown & Co. USA, 1991
4. Dretske, Fred. Knowledge and the Flow of Information, Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 1981.
Dretske, Fred. “Misrepresentation” in Belief: Form, Content, and Function, R. Bogdan (ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.
5. Heil, John. “Privileged Access”, Mind, 1988.
6. Ludlow, Peter. “Externalism, Self-Knowledge, and the
Prevalence of Slow-Switching.” Analysis, Jan. 1995.
Boghossian, Paul. “Content and Self-Knowledge”,
Philosophical Topics. 17:5-26, 1989.
7. Putnam, Hilary. The Meaning of meaning. Gunderson
(ed.), Language, Mind and Knowledge. Vol. 7, Minnesota

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Virtual Community Research Paper

Introduction

For a number of years, the Meta territoriality made possible by telecommunications has intrigued us with its potential to escape the national sovereignty of states. Virtuality creates new kinds of communities, which may acquire some of the powers and prerogatives of existing sovereignties (Bugliarello).

Globalization is generally referred to as the increasing interaction of people and places, which was the result of development of transportation systems, communication channels and information technologies that leads to cultural, economic and political contingence.

Nowadays, it is impossible to imagine life without Internet. It is irreplaceable when doing business and searching for partnerships, presenting products and services to consumers and communicating producers, as well as using it for entertaining purposes. Today it is the main tool of globalizing all aspects of social, political and economic spheres of everyday life. It opens channels for communication, choice and participation in an expanding public spheres fostered by popular to new media. Internet’s key feature remains lower barrier to entry and a wide range of possibilities for those who are willing to do e-commerce or just develop present business in all directions.

In this research paper I am aiming to explore globalization issues in the context of Internet development, define virtual communities and their key roles, investigate in the question of what does virtual Diaspora look like and what are possible types of it. I will also try to disclose the notion of identity and its role in establishment of virtual communities and Diasporas.

Virtual communities

There are three basic types of social relationships: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary refers to supporting face-to-face interactions, usually on the everyday basis. They involve all aspects of the life of an individual, and generally this type of relationship includes family members and close friends. Secondary interactions are also referred to as face-to-face, but they are most likely to be impersonal, for example, business interactions. And finally tertiary interactions are connected with those people whom we do not meet customarily, indirect relationships. It is not right to consider Internet supporting just tertiary or secondary ties. It is essential that Internet can reinforce primary or local bonds.

It is obvious that Internet provides the possibility to create new types of social relationships and creating particular groups. Usage of e-mail, web pages and of chatting facilities make the communication among people with similar interests and backgrounds very easy and allow them maintain social ties without seeing each other, or in other words without physical presence of each other. This type of communication is called as “online” or “virtual communities” which are of high popularity worldwide. One of the most important things about computer-mediated social formations is creation of social connections, which are not geographically tied. Rapid development of Internet, related services and investigating in online social formations make it possible to think about creation of “community without proximity”, in which it is possible for individuals to interact freely at large distance by means of technologies, instead of face-to-face exchanges.

Networked communication makes private, close professional or functional social circles portable. Individuals can carry with them, and have immediately accessible, the channels of communication needed to keep in touch with individuals that are vital for maintaining a sense of stability and social anchoring (Wellman 227-52).

There are several reasons for enjoying those online connections. Primarily, people want to be socially active- meeting and communicating people, playing games online, sharing jokes, funny stories and personal experiences. For such purposes there exist chat rooms- for example- www.elecricminds.org. Then people can work together or doing business. That can be communities as within a particular company, which would strengthen their team, and also communities between different companies to work and discuss common projects together, for example, http://bigbangworkshops.com/. People can be interested in topical conversations as well, for example, www.well.com or www.salon.com. There people share their experiences, opinions and ideas upon particular subjects (marriage issues, health, relationships, baby care, business and finance, traveling, religion, music, international, etc.) Such communities can be also structured in accordance with particular region, city, school or University (for example, www.livejournal.com). By the way, to my opinion Livejournal.com is one of the most successful and precise example of virtual community, as there it is possible to find everything regarding interested topic. Each person has the possibility to create his own account (it can be free or paid) or a community, specify a list of interests in order to attract new people and to search for people with similar interests. It is possible to find new partners, supplier or producers there in definite communities; rent, buy or sell property or business. It can also be an additional advertisement for the existing business, as a person on the everyday basis can inform interested parties in what is going on.

Virtual communities create new possibilities for identity. One of another bright example of virtual community is Second Life. It is a virtual society, a 3-D virtual world that was totally created by its residents. This community was launched in 2003 and since that time it acquired such popularity that today the number of its residents is already counted in millions. Once a person enters Second Life, he will discover a great continent, will teem with different people, and be involved in entertainment, experiences and opportunities. After the exploration it will be time for building personal house or starting a business. You are not alone there, as you’ll be surrounded by creations of other members. Then it is possible to trade digital creations, as Residents retain rights to them. The turnover of the Marketplace per month is millions of US dollars.

It is obvious that virtual communities have advantages and disadvantages. It is impossible to deny that computer communication created a strong potential for social interaction of people, locations and ideas that are at long distances. The questionable remains the quality of this interactions and the role of technologies in replacing or supplementing personal relationships. For some extent, Internet replaces strong, face-to-face relationships with weak online ties or with socially hollow interaction with the technology itself. Another threat is connected with the assumption that those virtual communities create the world that is dominated with the narcissism of similarity. Although virtual communities do not deny presence of online sociability, it can be significantly restricted by grouping people according to their age, gender or ideology.

I must say that Internet has greatly contributed to the understanding of people of what social space and relationships are. …computer-mediated communication does depersonalize some of our social interactions. For example, e-commerce and e-banking reduce or even eliminate human interactions. However, the relationships that we lose are not primary, strong-tie (i.e., those with family and friends), but secondary, weak-tie (i.e., those with sales clerks). In consequence, replacing impersonal human relationships with purely technological ones saves time, which can then be used for maintaining or reinforcing primary social relationships. This can be done in-person or via technological means–e.g., by e-mailing family members or a long-lost friend. Online social ties could, from this perspective, support and extend offline ties (Matei).

Speaking about advantages, I would like to investigate in the case with immigrants. They use Internet in order to keep ties to different social spaces and in general use communication technologies as the bridge between cyber space and geographical space. Computer-mediated communication in this case makes possible for immigrants to monitor and renovate their social interconnections.

Virtual Diasporas

As a result of the weakening of traditional ties in late modernity, people look towards virtual communities as social loci for the re-negotiation and construction of their identities. The ambiguous and complex environment of cyberspace becomes a new arena for the articulation of the politics of recognition, generating hybrid collective formations, such as digital nations, virtual Diasporas and other online communities of an ethnic/national orientation. These novel contexts of social interaction emerge from the localized flows of electronic mediascapes and challenge our notions of home, belonging, community and identity in various ways. More importantly, they function as manifestations of the desire of communities to exist in public space and confirm their presence in an increasingly complex and mediated social world (Diamandaki).

Internet, or a Global village, how it is frequently called, had created mediated and social networks, which are populated with number of individuals with different backgrounds and national origins. While trying to explore what a Virtual Diaspora is, I have found out that this term is very much connected with the notion of identity. Virtual identity cannot be defined at once, there is no strict definition of it, which can be always referred to, but it is also true that it is impossible to define any other type of identity. Identity is generally socially-constructed and contains building relationships with people and things around. As to the nature of identity, it appears to be rather political. Creation of identity is the process of definition, negotiation and social struggle. It includes political acceptance, discourse and law, exclusion and inclusion (Diamandaki). Identity also presumes power, as, for example, minority groups do not have enough strength to determine themselves.

Yet identity is becoming the main […] source of meaning in a historical period characterized by widespread destructuring of organizations, deletigimation of institutions, fading away of major social movements, and ephemeral cultural expressions. People increasingly organize their meaning not around what they do but on the basis of what they […] believe they are. Meanwhile, on the other hand, global networks of instrumental exchanges selectively switch on and off individuals, groups, regions, and even countries, according to their relevance in fulfilling the goals processed in the network, in a relentless flow of strategic decision. It follows a fundamental split between abstract, universal instrumentalism, and historically rooted, particularist identities (Castells 470).

Ethnicity is interconnected with establishment of Virtual Diasporas as well. National and ethnic identities can be observed everywhere in Internet. They appear to be parts of e-mail addresses and web-pages. When in communities, they appear to be in nick-names of individuals (e.g. “SophieNewYorK” or “Willy.MistyAlbion”).

It is also possible to distinguish between diasporic and non-diasporic nationalities and ethnicities. The difference depends upon the type of communities that they present their practices and primary goals.

Diasporic communities can be divided into three main categories- nations and national groups without a state, expatriate communities of exiting nation-states and communities of dissidents who have fled totalitarian regimes. The first category contains diasporic populations to whom this term has generally been applied to (e.g. the Jews, the Tibetans, etc.). Main discourses among those virtually created Diasporas are memories, pain, dislocation and suffering. Such communities usually speak a lot about lost home and their right to return home (Palestinian Diaspora). In this case the key symbol of ethnic identity is “their” land and the collective memory of exile. On the contrary of creating virtual Diasporas, I would like to present an example of Jewish community and Sabbath. For Jewish Diaspora Sabbath allowed overcoming the barrier of geographical dislocation without any technological advances. The greatest invention of the ancient Hebrews was the idea of the sabbath, though I am using this word in a fully secular sense: the invention of a region free from control of the state and commerce where another dimension of life could be experienced and where altered forms of social relationship could occur. As such the Sabbath has always been a major resistance to state and market power (Carrey 227). And on the other hand Jewish communities are widespread in Internet. For those of us already living in Jewish communities, the Internet binds us together. We can get information, we chat on mailing lists, and we can share our ideas and personalities on web sites. But for Jews isolated in remote locations, the web can really open up the Jewish world for them. And as time goes by, the web will bring us more and more to learn about our people, Jewish history and culture, and torah and mitzvoth (Tannenbaum).

The second category includes immigrants, as questions of global mobility and immigration are very relevant nowadays. The main purpose of creation of such communities is an attempt to build a home in Internet, which is far away from real home. Examples contain Chinese, Indians, Russians, and African-Americans living abroad. Such Diasporas are not very much interested in politics, they are just aiming to develop and sustain spirit of unity with their Motherland by means of communicating people with similar needs and building a strong virtual community.

The last third category involves exile communities, aiming to de-legitimize or destruct the regimes in their counties. Key topic of such communities is striving for democracy.

There are also non-diasporic communities with such subcategories: nations with a state and regional ethnicities within a nation. Communities and web-pages of the first subcategory usually choose primary symbols and ideologically attractive myths for their national identity. It can be anthems, flags, symbolic colors or historical events. And the second subcategory web-sites are created aiming to develop the sense of ethnic peculiarity and historicity. So, it becomes obvious that virtual Diaspora communities are very much important in establishing international relationships, resolving conflicts and assisting in cooperation.

Conclusion

In the conclusion I would like to summarize all key point of the paper and develop some idea about potentialities of virtual communities and virtual Diasporas. So, it is already obvious for a long time that globalization is inevitable and quickly developed process. It includes all spheres of people’s lives, and is tightly connected with technological advances. Step-by-step time and space become to loose their common meaning and now to do business it is not necessary to have a premise and a numerous working staff. To have a computer with an access to Internet Explorer is far enough to get started. Internet is frequently used for buying stuff and watching sight seeing of the other countries. The whole world is open and ready to astonish with numerous possibilities. A person can just sit in the room and communicate friends from the other side of the world through “Skype” and seeing them as well by means of web-camera, or CEO of a large corporation can use this tool for negotiations or even for a conference regarding business issues.

People can trade stocks on Internet and earn money- save of time for paperwork. If someone had to move to another country to work or to study, it is always possible to stay with your family “online” or just communicate people of the same interested and not to feel lonely. A talented writer can easily share his works with other in special communities and women who are interested in fashion can easily watch latest clothes demonstrations at company’s sites and immediately buy what they want.

So, new is always good and creating is always optimistic, and the same is with virtual communities and globalization process.

Sources:
Matei, Sorin. “The Impact of State-Level Social Capital on the Emergence of Virtual Communities”. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, vol.8, issue 1 (2004):23+
Wellmann, B. “Physical Space and Cyber Space: The Rise of Personalized Networks”. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25(2): 227-252
Bugliarello, George. “Virtual Nations or Telecommunication”. The Futurist, vol. 36, issue 4(2002):30+
Tannenbaum, A. The Jewish Internet – A Guru’s View (online interview). Retrieved November 25, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.wujs.org.il/activist/features/articles/andrew_interview.shtml
Diamandaki, Katerina. “Virtual ethnicity and digital diasporas: Identity construction in cyberspace”. Global Media Journal, vol.2, issue 2 (2003)
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