of the conditions of the viability of a man is his health. People always understood this fact, and that is why congratulating somebody we constantly wish good health to a person. Everything the rest we can reach by ourselves. But to be healthy means to understand all the inner processes of the organism and their harmony. Numerous scientific methods, medical experiments, and achievements are particularly effective in such case.
The concept of health and illness. Medical achievements
Under the word “disease” or “illness,” the doctors mean a detour from the norm. So it is understandable: if a man has a lack of insulin, so he has diabetes; too much cholesterin (or cholesterol)– heart attack is possible. But what is a norm for a concrete person? All people are different in age, sex, weight, stature, constitution. Are not these differences normal? Some people have the heart on the right side. Is it a terrible disease? So norms should be taken into account in the majority of cases. That is why we will not be frightened, sensing the reaction on the virus with high temperature and thirst, as it just means that our immune system works without a hitch. Certainly, a detour from the norm is ground to pay attention to your health. Because even a slight cold and a small mole can cause serious diseases, chronic cold, highmoritis and melanoma accordingly. But in such a case we should not fall into panic and despair and cure ourselves by all means as we can overdo.
In medical practice, the concept of health is firstly a negation of illness and other disorders. But the absolute health exists only as an unattainable ideal that is why there is a term “relative health” which means that a man is practically healthy. Sometimes a detour from norm considers being a pathology or illness. In medical lexicon, pathology is characterized as a breach of the functioning of an organism on the biological level. The original meaning of the Greek word “patos” is a suffering. Consequently, under pathology, we should understand a detour from the norm when a man feels emotional discomfort. So the characteristic of general feeling is a central section of delimitation health from a disease. A healthy man is a person, who feels well and can carry out or perform daily social functions. A sick man is a person who feels bad and can’t be useful and efficient for some time.
A general concept of health that was suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) includes such condition of a man when:
- structural and functional characteristics of an organism are saved;
- there is a high adaptability to the changes in nature and social surrounding;
- there is emotional and social well-being.
Two points of view exist in the concept of illness:
- illness is a condition diagnosed by a professional;
- illness is a subjective sensation of being sick. Now I think it is clear, what the words “health” and “illness” mean, as they have opposite meanings and there is only one step between a condition of complete health and terrible illness.
But how should we act and what should we know to be healthy and strong? No doubt several centuries ago people suffered from terrible diseases that could not be cured by any means at that time, and they had nothing to do but to die in savage torments. But nowadays we see a ray of light and people have to hope for future.
During the last two hundred of years, an incredible and astonishing progress of medical science was reached.
In a period that was full of huge technological and industrial advances in almost every area of life from communications to manufacturing processes, the transformation in medical knowledge and practice was in the first place. A significant number of implications and discoveries changed the way of our thinking, changed the life in general. Let’s remember, that at the end of the 18-th century John Snow proved that cholera was a waterborne infection; then in the middle of the 19-th century, in 1846 exactly Joseph Lister finished his work with Antisepsis; in 1849 -Louis Pasteur proposed a scientific method of ‘Pasteurization’; in 1860s-1880s the modern surgery was founded, and anesthesia was brilliantly used for the first time; in 1880s Koch wrote his Postulates in the understanding of infectious diseases, and at last, at the beginning of the 20-th century the antibiotics appeared (1930s-Penicillin, in 1944 -Streptomycin – the first Anti-tuberculosis drug). But this historical list is not finished, as the world is still full of discoveries and medical innovations.
During the last five years, the medical, scientific methods also showed good results, as they had reached the absolute great effectiveness of a human organism. For example: in 2005 the researchers of UCLA’s Johnson Cancer center observed how the immune system recognizes cancer cells and mobilizes to fight the disease with the help of positron emission tomography. So it means that won’t need to do biopsies. Then in 2005, the researchers at the UCLA Mattel Children’s Hospital found that children with short stature because of the hormone deficiency can be treated by taking fixed doses of insulin-like growth hormones. In 2004 the same researchers proved that modern air pollution could cause asthma. In 2003 a vaccine for type1 diabetes that can affect one from 300 people was invented. In 2002 one-year-old Siamese twins that were joined with heads were separated at Mattel Children’s Hospital. They were operated by a team of more than 50 different specialists, and the operation was conducted successfully.
To sum, everything said before I should mention that the development of scientific methods and medical knowledge will start to double its rate in the nearest future because science has already reached the effective understanding of a human organism and its functions. And the achievements will impress us by their accuracy, need, and perspective.
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