Ultranationalism is extreme form of nationalism, which, in turn, is a worldview that is based in the Community of Nations borders.
Ultranationalism celebrates the nation, the culture, the history and sees the nation-state and its interests above all. Those who profess ultranationalism is called ultranationalist.
Ultranationalism emerged in Europe during the 1900s and led to the creation of fascism, expansionism, totalitarism,, and irredentism as we know them today. After the Second World War ultranationalism was used together with Marxism as an ideology in several colonial liberation movements.
In his celebration through history, ultranationalism can also be linked to romance. This is because ultranationalists believe that nationalism intention is to promote an altruistic, unselfish act for the sake of the nation. Thus the ultranationalists consider that ultranationalism can unify forces and reduce frictions in society and therefore believe that it provides a strong positive impact on society.
Nationalist critics argue in they turn that it is precisely this that makes nationalism irrational: a strong assertion of own nation promotes chauvinism and obstruct peaceful development between countries.
The difference between patriotism and nationalism consists in the fact that the former is always loyal to the established polity and territory and at least in theory can be combined with the political opinions and religious beliefs whatsoever, while nationalism is a broader political ideology with an admittedly diverse but still clear social programs. Furthermore, nationalism is usually based from the nation-state as the ideal, which is not patriotism necessarily do.
It is possible to discern two main principles guiding ultranationalism: ius sanguinis, right of blood, which assumes that the Nation is just a cultural entity, determined by long historical processes or kinship. This interpretation is based primarily on the romanticism. The first principle is the principle of ius soli, the earth right or territorial law, where the nation was made up of all its inhabitants irrespective of ethnic background or affiliation. This principle derives from the philosophy of the Enlightenment where the membership in a nation and the rights that came with were determined by the nationality of the territory as a base.
Every nation at different times contain elements from both of these principles and there are oscillates between its poles, which one can also observe in countries with different design of citizenship legislation. These key principles can manifest itself in different ways.
Several different definitions of nationalism exists, especially when there are political gains to associate nationalism with an estimated or despised phenomenon.
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