Standardized testing is an evaluation tool, the purpose of which is to measure and evaluate the performance of students in relation to the other students participating in the same test. Such tests are generally issued by specialized institutions (e.g., College Board). They test training and development level through the challenging and extensive process, whereby great emphasis is made on the complexity of the tests and their subsequent systematic evaluation. Before being put into practice, all of the tests are verified and documented thoroughly.
This ensures that the properties of the tests and their parameters are always exactly defined and known in advance. The manual is usually a part of the standardized tests, from which the user learns about the properties of the test and its proper use. There is also a test standard, according to which the evaluation of performances is done. Standardized tests are often used to measure the results of teaching for longer periods of time and are used predominantly for repeated measurements in a large number of pupils and students.
We can divide the tests in such category as:
- tests on different types of memory ability,
- tests of mental processes, reasoning skills tests,
- tests for the career choice, and others.
The result obtained is called the raw score (raw score is numerical value without regard to other characteristics of the individual), which converts to a weighted score (weighted score is measurements separated from the average expressed in units of mean deviation).
The standardization of the tests is the way to ensure a fair and valid use of the test, i.e. the determination of uniform administration, verification of reliability and validity and the method of instruction, the creation of standards and conditions for the further fair interpretation of the results. We can also define the standardization as a procedure, as well as establishing appropriate standards so that the performance of each individual could be compared with the corresponding standard.
Standardized tests can help you effectively and efficiently measure the level of some students in relation to the level of other students, measured in the same test. The results of these tests can be used and evaluated by administration or teachers who gain an accurate idea on the test level, the effectiveness of the school system, teaching methods, or academic performance of a student in a specific subject.
The opposite of standardized testing is called non-standardized testing, which did not involve making all the usual steps in strictly standardized testing. non-standardized tests are typically prepared by teachers for your own needs, they are called, therefore, teaching or informal tests. Non-standardized tests do not test the objective fixed by the test manual, available for standardized tests. They serve primarily to identify the results of teaching for a short period of time.
Standardized testing has a long and rich history. The first signs of the use of this method are dated from the period 2200 B.C. on the territory of China. The Chinese Government has required uniformly written exams from all those interested in working in the State administration, which was at that time highly respected function. This testing was continuing almost 4,000 years, until 1905, when it was canceled on the basis of the educational reform.
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