According to the definition given by the World Wildlife Fund (1989), biological diversity is “the diversity of life forms on earth, millions of species of plants, animals, micro-organisms and their gene sets and complex ecosystems that make up the wildlife.” Thus, biological diversity should be considered on three levels. Biological diversity at the species level covers the entire range of the species on Earth from bacteria and protozoa to multicellular kingdoms of plants, animals and fungi. In a smaller scale biological diversity includes the genetic diversity of species, formed as a geographically distant populations and individuals within the same population. Biological diversity also includes a variety of biological communities, species, ecosystems, formed communities and the interaction between these levels.
Use free sample research papers on the topic to understand the idea that biological diversity includes the genetic diversity (genetic variation within each species), species diversity (set of species in the ecosystem) and the diversity of the communities/ecosystems (habitats and ecosystems in this area) necessary for continuous survival of species and natural communities at all levels of biological diversity.
Biological diversity demonstrates the richness of evolutionary and ecological adaptations of species to different environments. This is a source of diverse natural resources for human. For example, tropical rainforests with their rich set of species produce a remarkable variety of plant and animal products, which can be used for food, construction and medicine.
Genetic diversity is necessary for any kind of preservation of reproductive viability, resistance to disease, the ability to adapt to changing conditions. Genetic diversity of domesticated animals and cultivated plants, especially valuable for those who are working on breeding programs to maintain and improve modern agricultural species. Diversity at the community level is a collective response to various types of environmental conditions. Biological communities that are typical for deserts, steppes, forests and flooded lands, maintain the continuity of the normal functioning of the ecosystem.
At every level of biological diversity – species, genetic and community diversity – experts are studying the mechanisms that alter or maintain the diversity. Species diversity includes the entire set of species in Earth. There are two main types of definition. First, the form is a collection of individuals who, for various morphological, physiological or biochemical characteristics are different from other groups.
The reasons to develop methods for the conservation of biodiversity is justified by the ecosystem services it produces and is supported with ethical and aesthetic arguments.
Ecosystem variation. Ecosystems have many important functions, including oxygen production, solar energy binding, water purification and climate regulation. A variety of ecosystem types is needed to meet the various needs of society and as a habitat for various species.
Species variation. Different species gives us among other raw materials, food and inspiration for technological solutions to the problem. It is often not known which exactly species are important for a specific ecosystem functions. According to the precautionary principle laid down in the Convention on Biological Diversity in these cases all species should be conserved.
Genetic variation. A variety of characteristics within species is necessary for life to continue to evolve and adapt to new conditions. Genetic resources are also important for the development of new crops and medicines.
Philosophically and ethically, the question is whether we have the right to exterminate other species at all. Just because a species is of no value to us humans do not make it worthless species.
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