Domestic violence, or violence in family, is a recurring violence by one partner over the other in close relationships, particularly in marriage. It can be expressed in the form of physical, psychological, sexual, or economic violence. Domestic violence is often accompanied by child abuse and ill-treatment of animals.
By the definition of the National Center for the prevention of domestic violence, this type of violence is characterized with recurring abuse with increasing frequency cycle of physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, and economic abuse and pressure against their loved ones in order to gain the power and control over them.
The gendered nature of domestic violence, according to the recent research, significantly shifted toward the violence against women, according to other, it is symmetrical or close to the symmetry, but varies by the significance the caused damage.
Domestic violence does not depend on homosexuality and occurs in male and female same-sex relations as frequently as in opposite-sex relations.
Public tolerance and legal punishability of domestic violence differs in different countries. Almost all Western countries and in many countries of the Eastern Europe, domestic violence is a separate offense.
Today, there are two basic approaches to prevent domestic violence:
- restorative, aimed at resolving the conflict and preserving the family, including moderated public courts and compulsory programs of medical and psychological assistance;
- punitive, aimed at breaking the cycle of violence by termination of the relationship between the parties.
Punitive approach dominates in most of the countries with a developed legal framework and provides a different level of responsibility for domestic violence.
In the legislation of most countries, there is a special law on the prevention of domestic violence. The level of public tolerance towards the problem of domestic violence in the home varies depending on the features of the national culture and the extent of the corruption of State structures. Thus, France could become the first country to criminalize even verbal abuse within the family, a draft of such a law was developed in 2009 and is currently under discussion.
Among the short-term consequence of the domestic violence, we have to mention physical injury, anxiety, fear, depression, impaired sex life, the fear of adults, children sexual abuse, protective behaviors.
Among the long-term there is a reluctance to recreate family, misogyny, misandry, “no future” (not planning to life), psychosomatic diseases (neurosis, mental illness), dependence on other people’s opinion, the reluctance to have a close relationship, violation of socialization in children, the high risk of the same violence in their future relations, high risk of criminal conduct (80% are prone to crimes, 40% to cruelty), the higher the risk of use of alcohol, drugs, and sexual violence is a risk of becoming a prostitute.
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