Management psychology, which is otherwise described as managerial psychology, occurs as a sub-discipline associated with industrial and organizational psychology. It focusses solely on the individuals working within a given workplace environment. Management psychology seeks to provide managers with an understanding of what they would expect in their bid to enhancing efficacy for their employees. Basically, this means that management psychology creates a front through which managers are able to study, understand, and learn how to control the performance of their employees. Additionally, management psychology builds on a structured framework, through which to engage in an in-depth examination of some of the varied elements that are likely to bring out non-efficiency in work performance. Therefore, the adoption of management psychology has been viewed as being essential towards ensuring that companies work towards advancing their general positions and success rates.By using management psychology, managers find it much easier to understanding psychological patterns that can be associated with their employees. Consequently, this allows for easier identification of patterns that occur as being common among employees, which would enable the management to change their tactical approach to handling their employees. On the other hand, it also seeks to provide managers with information that they would use as part of their standard approach towards predicting and preventing behaviors that are likely to have serious impacts on employees’ performance. The long-term effect that this tends to have on the organizational front is that it brings an overall shift in the way managers understand their respective workplace environments. The focus for this report is to examine the historical development of management psychology, as well as, embark on an in-depth analysis of its effects on management practices, which may affect the identity work associated with middle-level managers.
Background to Management Psychology
In the early stages of management psychology, one of the key aspects to note is that it was used to help in the identification of the major factors that were likely to impede on the efficiency of work performance. Riggio (2017, p.53) takes note of the fact that it helped in the identification of possible causes of fatigue and boredom, which were associated with poor performance among employees, thus leading to reduced outcomes from an organizational perspective. However, recent developments on the concept have helped towards providing managers with a clear front through which to engage their employees. That provides them with a clear avenue through which to understand their varied needs and motivational forces, with the sole expectation being towards ensuring that the managers deliver on the same.
Management psychology has also been used when engaging in performance appraisals, as it does not only involve having to evaluate the performance measures associated with an employee but also builds on understanding psychological factors that define performance. In other words, this means that the adoption of management psychology would be of great value towards ensuring that managers are able to gain a clear understanding of work productivity. From an organizational perspective, this means that the employees would be in a rather proactive position that allows for an easier shift towards improved performance standards. Other key aspects to note when dealing with management psychology is that it also aids in the screening of employees depending on their productivity levels. When selecting employees for a given position, management psychology offers a rather position outcome, which serves as a guarantee for effective selection.
One of the main advantages associated with management psychology is that it provides a basic framework through which to define probabilities of performance within an organization. Therefore, this means that it remains as being very efficient towards changing the way in which managers examine their workplace environment, as it seeks to provide new standards through which to evaluate their employees. Managers find themselves in a position where they serve as key determinants of whether a company or organization is likely to achieve the best possible outcomes. Their adoption of management psychology creates a clear front through which to advance their capacity to improve on the expected performance outcomes in a significant manner. The gradual change in management psychology has been seen as a key aspect that has helped towards improving overall capacity for companies and organizations to build on their success outcomes.
Historical Development of Management Psychology
The concept of management psychology was developed towards the end of the 19th century by first-generation American psychologists, who sought to create an approach that would allow them to engage in a psychological evaluation of employees in a given workplace environment. Walter Dill Scott was among the first psychologists to contribute to this concept, as he sought to understand how the use of psychology would produce higher levels of effectiveness in dealing with advertisements (Riggio 2017, p.26). Scott sought to build on psychological consultancy, with the sole intention being towards improving workplace efficiency. His contribution towards the development of management psychology is seen as one of the key steps that allowed for an easier shift towards its adoption in companies and organizations.
Hugo Munsterberg, who despite being a German psychologist, lived in the United States, also sought to contribute to the development of this psychological concept in a bid to determining its efficiency in the workplace environment (Duffy, Blustein, Diemer, & Autin 2016, p.127). The main contribution that can be associated with Munsterberg revolves around his decision to adopt practical experimentation of management psychology to aid in solving a vast number of organizational problems. From his adoption of management psychology, Munsterberg was able to develop a clear understanding of mental qualifiers, which are considered as being key towards defining the best workers as part of the overall engagement in the workplace environment. Generally, this meant that Munsterberg would be in a rather effective position to define some of the major factors that are likely to ensure that employees improve their performance standards effectively.
Munsterberg also aided in the description of possible mental factors that managers would be expected to evaluate among their employees to define their economic efficiencies. Generally, this sought to change the way in which managers define economic performance for given companies and organizations. It is equally worthwhile to note that Munsterberg also developed a hypothesis that revolved around management psychology, arguing that women were incapable of rational thought. That meant that women should not be allowed to graduate, as they did not have the mental capacity that would enable them to advance performance within the company or organizational setting. However, later development of management of psychology disputed this position, suggesting that indeed women were in a position to build on rational thoughts same as the men within the same workplace environment.
Another key individual that must be noted when evaluating the historical development of management psychology is Walter Van Dyke Bingham, who played a vital role in the development of management standards that would be used in job applicant selection. From his contributions, it is important to note that Bingham sought to change the way in which managers evaluated their employees, with the sole intention being towards evaluating employees based on their mental understanding of job performance (Duffy, Blustein, Diemer, & Autin 2016, p.131). One of the key aspects to consider is that Bingham believed that evaluation of applicants was important, since it helped in the development of a mental picture touching on overall performance standards. Generally, this means that it would change the way in which managers engage in personnel evaluation and selection, with the sole intention being towards defining set out performance standards. In his view, Bingham believed that this would have serious implications towards ensuring that companies would be able to bridge the demands set out within the markets.
The portrayal of Women in the Field of Management Psychology
The omission of women in management psychology, in the early periods of the twentieth century, serves as one of the key aspects to note in the evaluation of this concept. It becomes apparent that women were viewed as lacking the psychological wellbeing to advance their performance within the workplace environment. Most of the psychologists involved in the development of management psychology created a situation where it was much harder for the position of the women to remain justified. That meant that most of the managers using management psychology during that period discriminated against the women, arguing that women lacked the general mental and psychological capacities that would serve as determinants of their performance.
During the development of management psychology, the field of psychology was male-dominated. Although some women played major roles in contributing to this concept, the existing socio-cultural barriers affected their capacities to achieve possible outcomes. The position of the women within the workplace environment was impacted in a significant manner, which meant that for the women to build on their performance standards, it was important for them to highlight their mental capabilities. Lillian Moller Gilbret was one of the women psychologists that contributed to changing the narrative on women with regard to management psychology (Duffy, Blustein, Diemer, & Autin 2016, p.133). In her contribution, what was clear is that she understood the fact that women indeed had the expected mental capacities that would allow them to advance on their performance standards, while ensuring that they build on overall capacities to deliver on the best possible outcomes.
Management Psychology Effects on Identity Work of Middle Managers
Considering that management psychology focuses on enhancing various practices undertaken within a workplace environment, there are major effects experienced following the implementation of management psychology principles. The first effect of management psychology on the management practices entails understanding different ways of managing stress and changes within an organization. According to Bachkirov (2015, p.868), stress and personal problems are critical aspects that hinder positive relations and performances within a work place environment, thus affecting the overall productivity of the organization. In that case, the development of strategies and methodologies to overcome stress plays an essential role in boosting the overall performance of an organization. Through management psychology principles, middle managers gain the ability to handle workplace stress and personal problems among the employees, thus providing an avenue for positive performance. Additionally, the principles help in enhancing interactions, which is an aspect that helps in dealing with the stress and personal problems affecting the employees.
Another critical aspect of the management practices entails the issue of change and the acceptance and management of change within an organization. Changes are inevitable within a business environment, considering the dynamic aspects of the business environment. To benefit from enhanced performance, it is necessary to capitalize on the implementation of strategies that help in accommodating changes in order to ensure that an organization is in a position to keep up with global trends. Through management psychology principles, middle managers gain the ability to influence the employees in different ways of accepting change within a work place environment. According to Odoardi, Montani, Boudrias, and Battistelli (2015, p.453), management psychology provides the middle managers with different strategies that help in the implementation of change effectively, and helps in dealing with fears that are associated with the implementation of change in a workplace environment. Additionally, it helps in providing an understanding of the importance of implementing changes, with the aim of promoting effectiveness in boosting individual and organizational performances.
The second effect of management psychology within a working environment entails understanding how to deal with issues of diversity in an organization. According to Helfat and Peteraf (2015, p.842), diversity is a critical issue that influences individual and organizational performance, considering factors, such and cultural and religious diversities. Dealing with the issues of diversities in the workplace environment requires the implementation of effective strategies that help in overcoming the diversities without interfering with the working relations. The implementation of management psychology influence the middle managers to understand key aspects of considerations that help in dealing with the issues of diversity within a working environment, with the aim of promoting positive interactions and boost the overall performances. Moreover, management psychology provides an avenue for interaction between the employees and top management, thereby providing a platform for addressing diversity issues that may influence the employees’ performance at an individual level. Additionally, middle managers capitalize on the establishment of policies that may help in dealing with diversity and ensure that the employees have a favorable working environment, despite the diversities.
The third effect relating to the implementation of management psychology within an organization entails the provision of the ability to solve personal and work conflicts that arise within a workplace environment. According to Landy and Conte (2016, p.108), conflicts in an organization play an important role in influencing the performance and the interactions of employees within an organization. Considering there are positive and negative conflicts in an organization, the management requires capitalizing on the implementation of strategies to deal with the conflicts in a bid to obtain positive performances. Positive conflicts in an organization entail battles and fights that are constructive in nature, considering the output, which may include encouraging open-mindedness and competition. On the other hand, negative conflicts include issues that may result in a negative impact on the performance of an organization. In that case, management psychology provides the middle managers with the ability to deal with different types of conflicts that may arise in an organization through the implementation of conflict resolution strategies. Additionally, the middle managers understand the importance of adopting effective confrontation skills among the employees.
Middle managers also find it much easier in their use of management psychology as one of the key ways through which to highlight the importance of ethics as one of the key factors occurring within the workplace environment. It must be noted that most of the managers tend to have a clear understanding of what is expected of them in building on ethics but are often expected to engage their employees on the same concept. Basically, this allows them to build on their identity, with the sole intention being towards maximizing on a general shift in the way that they evaluate overall performance standards. The overall impacts that this tends to have is that it creates a generalized standard for performance for every employee as they relate to the performance of the company or organization.
Management psychology also builds on the need for middle to engage in a process that would allow them to identify skills, build on motivation, develop, and persuade others. One of the key expectations, touching on the identity work of middle managers, is that they are often expected to serve as key avenues that influence others towards improving their capacities to deliver. Therefore, this means that the managers would be expected to apply the concept of management psychology, which is likely to change the way the managers define performance for their employees. In the skill identification process, the managers find it much easier in the overall process of examining how the use of skills would allow for a general shift in outcome performance standards.
Based on the skills that are identified, it becomes much easier for the middle managers to understand what is expected of them in the general process of building motivation. That means that it becomes much easier for them to always work towards motivating their employees to improve on their performance in a manner that is likely to have positive impacts on the success of the company or organization. Motivation serves as a key factor that enhances overall performance standards, since it creates a standard through which to advance overall expectations in matching professional goals (Kumar, Jauhari, Rastogi, & Sivakumar 2018, p.148). That leads to the development and persuasion stages, which seek to build on a general shift in the way the managers engage their employees. Therefore, it becomes much easier for them to change the way they engage their employees, with the sole intention being towards improving on the general performance standards.
In summary, management psychology occurs as a sub-discipline associated with industrial and organizational psychology that solely focusses on the individuals working within a given workplace environment. Managers find it much easier in their bid to understanding psychological patterns that can be associated with their employees. The adoption of management psychology would be of great value towards ensuring that managers are able to gain a clear understanding of work productivity. Managers find themselves in a position where they serve as key determinants of whether a company or organization is likely to achieve the best possible outcomes. Some of the key contributors to management psychology include Walter Dill Scott, Hugo Munsterberg, Walter Van Dyke Bingham, and Lillian Moller Gilbret. Through management psychology principles, middle managers gain the ability to manage workplace stress and personal problems among the employees, thus providing an avenue for positive performance. The implementation of management psychology influence the middle managers to understand the key aspects of considerations that help in dealing with the issues of diversity within a working environment, with the aim being to promote positive interactions and boost the overall performances.
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