According to Kant, synthetic a proiri judgment is possessing information on aspects beyond logic but not based on experience. However, synthetic elements are referred to fall under empirical aspects, i.e., based on experience. Kant is against that belief; synthetic knowledge ought to be a priori. He believes experience could be erased, but the knowledge would still stand ground. He proceeds to claim that mathematics is a synthetic a priori judgment. He uses the example of space and time to explain synthetic a priori judgment and that space and time will appear after they are addressed in thought. He relates space to geometry, that is, to achieve the understanding of the synthetic a priori judgments of space in pure intuition then one has to use geometry due to its scientific aspect. However, Kant’s idea was argued by the newly formed non-Euclidean geometries. Kant insisted Euclidean space is the only empirical space. However, the formation of non-Euclidean geometry suggested that Kant’s idea should be denied. Kant was not against non-Euclidean geometry thus it should not apply to his ideology.
The Weak Anthropic Principle (WAP) is repetitive stating that a universe will only support beings that can survive and observe it. The ideology states that human beings at the beginning of the earth were less sophisticated than today’s since the universe itself was not complicated. Therefore, all beings today are capable of observing and understanding the complexities the world offers. Some people felt the principle was not satisfactory and thus they wrote a different one, the Strong Anthropic Principle which states that properties like life exist since the universe agreed it was a necessity of such complexities developing. The strong points of the ideology is that it is a posteriori since it is based on past events whereby the points are supported with evidence. Furthermore, the world has vast beauty. It ought to have a divine designer. The elements of the earth propose that the earth was made explicitly for human beings. However, no one on earth saw the world being created. Therefore, it cannot be a solid idea. I believe it is metaphysical since it explains the aspects of the creation of the universe about the existence of man.
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Reductionism is a combination of aspects of philosophy which discuss the relationship between phenomena and other essential phenomena. Reductionism is applied to any idea, theory, point, discussion, definition, and phenomena. Reductionism underlines that the parts of an element are what makes the element a whole. Reductionism integrates a significant element to small essential parts. Reductionism comprises ontological and epistemological reductionism. Ontological reductionism has two branches, that is, token and type ontological reductionism (Riel and Gulick). Token ontological reductionism states that all items which exist are a sum of items of lower complexity. For example, biological elements are integrated to form chemical substances. Type ontological reductionism states that all types of elements are just the sum of a type of elements of lower complexity. Epistemological reductionism states that a complex element can only be understood through integration to its essential parts. It is attributed to the characteristics of micro-physical substances. I believe ontological reductionism conflicts with religious belief. Religion insists that believing is solely associated with only a supreme being. However, ontological reductionism insists that religion ought to be associated with the aspects of mind, body and alternate reality.
Reference Riel, Raphael., & Gulick, Robert. (2014). Scientific reduction. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/scientific-reduction/