Summary of a Book Chapter Essay

East Asia provides original information for students studying world politics. Countries such as China, South Korea, and Japan are examples of the largest economies of the world and learners can use these nations to study the interaction of power of wealth. Some Asian countries engage in almost 30 percent more businesses more than the United States. China has a high economic growth making East Asian nations remain as a dynamic region regarding financial stability. Students who want to study comparison between historical sociology and political economy can extract essential sources from East Asian countries. These countries contain a unique set of economic and political institutions. In particular, Japan, China, and South Korea have evolved, converging in some areas and differing in other situations.

The book defines East Asia as a region that stretches from Japan to Myanmar. As mention earlier, East Asian countries may be divided into four groups, including Japan which has a first rank mature market. The second group is South Korea which is a newly industrialized nation. China is the fourth group nations and is rapidly developing concerning industrial activities hence promotes economic growth. Chapter four of the book talks about order-creating experience in the west and Japan. However, it does not give a clear explanation regarding imperialistic endeavors. On the contrary, chapter five focuses on prosperous economies in countries like North Korea. The crisis state is examined in chapter six of the book.
This book chapter discuss a few critical issues slightly covering for full range of problems. According to John Stuart Smith, Political Economy is defined as an economy of science that increases the wealth of the state. Other economists like Alfred marshal define the envision term as the study of the market and application of economic approach in the field of political science. The word means applying an economic approach which is human behavior in political economy. Political economy is essential in comparing international relations, historical sociology, and comparative sociology.
The author of the book has illustrated the common interest in institutions. Scholars believe that rationalist approach is best utilized in institutions to synthesize on issues that cover comparative politics, subfields of political science, and international politics. International Relations (IR) perceives the idea of focusing on international institutions as a way of finding tools from America to make the translation of politics in IR possible. Institutions help people understand human behaviors that essential in studying political economy in the market. Economics and politics stand on a distinct area of human activities because economy deals with the creation of wealth and efficiency. The latter is about participation, rights, duties, authoritative distribution of resources and Justice.

As mention earlier, the book examines the world order and political economy of Chinese people. In this chapter, the author addresses two questions. First, the appearance of the state of East Asian before the arrival of the European is discussed. The author explains that East Asia had a system of political economy which distinguish them from the modern Westphalia international system. The Westphalia system has its equal sovereign power while the Chinese world consists of hierarchical authority, and moral which in essence was incomplete. Despite the unfinished state, East Asian nations did not develop in isolation.

Another question that is addressed in this chapter is about the emergence of Western Europe in the industrial revolution. By comparing the nations, the author notes that East Asian and Western shares a lot regarding agriculture, level of wealth, population control, and commerce. Chapter four of the book explains the reason why Western Europe achieved a technical breakthrough in America. Some of the highlighted reasons behind the success of the western nations are because of forcible possession, innovativeness, and abundant resources.

The idea of order helps people understand the organization of the states. International relations train human to perceive order as an object to people who are seeking a stable relationship between nations. Therefore, international law is an arrangement where states act following the purposes of the system. An organized system is often associated with stability, norms, rules, and rewards. An international order includes the distribution of power and state of affairs that is attached to the goals. The East Asian global system is perceived as a Chinese world order. Importantly, Chinese world order values power and legitimacy, thus connected to the theories of international law.

Japan contacted the western people in in the sixteen century. In 1542, the Portuguese converted a million of Japanese and introduced firearms. At the time of their conversion, Japan banned trade with western unions. Japan was affected by western imperialism in the 19th century as they were forced to sign treaties with the United States. The Japanese felt that the agreements were unfair and unequal since they provided military protection of foreign merchants and the owners with extraterritorial privileges. The authorities formed a Japan’s Meiji reformers to enhance the economy of the Japanese people. The primary purpose of the reform was to respond to the opportunities and competition from countries like China. The presence of Chinese competition pressurizes the Japanese to advance in using technologies and organization.

The experience of learning about Japanese government, workers, and companies is useful in post-war development period. Initially Japanese made its way to Korea with good economic intentions. Since then Japan became an industrial country and is now concerned about concern about securing supplied materials from the producers to the consumers. As a result of good supply, Japan has had greater liability in heavy industries. The country receives pressure to expand its boundaries and has received approval from authorities. The first target for expansion was China. The Japanese took action in anticipating for the stronger position due to China’s rising strength. Furthermore, the subject nation broke into a war fight with China after which the Japanese troupe captured North Vietnam.

The political economy of the East Asian countries focuses on trade, exchange rates, and foreign investments. Production is vital in the East Asian political economy. The output of manufactured food boosts industrialization hence modernization. Producing such goods ensures that the citizens would enjoy a higher living standard and create a strong nation. Reinforcement of the practices has increased the process of industrialization and help to nurture the economy of the Eastern nation countries. Therefore, majoring in production, contribute to curbing the crisis of economy of scale in the Asian countries. Policies should also be enacted to promote the manufacturing output and make Est Asians nations the factory of the world. Shifting from labor-intensive to capital-intensive requires commitment and utilization of high-tech products in the organization. Generally, the East Asian countries are experiencing a fast economic growth due to emergence of technology which enhance the art of creativity and innovation.

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