Exactly forty years ago, the Equal Pay Act became the part of the law the principle of the equal remuneration of women and men.
Since 1972, the situation of women on the labour market is of course vastly improved and they now occupy a place close to those of men even though a gap remains in the participation rate. It is a very positive development because an access to employment is the condition of financial autonomy, pillar of the emancipation of women. However, the wage gaps persist because the increase in activity and employment of women has been pretty widely by the development of part-time jobs, which today places women, which represent 80% of part-time employees, in the situations of precariousness.
This is for the reason that the Government decided to change the pace and method. The pace – in reviewing very soon, to make it effective, the penalty that weigh on companies not complying with their obligations in respect of professional equality and by enforcing next year control plans.
The methods – in tackling simultaneously all the causes of inequalities, ranging from stereotypes to fight against insecurity due to part-time to the educational and vocational guidance.
The origins of the Act dates back to the creation of the International Labour Organization in 1919, when States considered that several principles are “of special and urgent importance.” As well as “The equal pay act>, without distinction as to sex, for work of equal value.” A link was established between preserving peace and the abolition of poverty, caused by insufficient wages, particularly for women. The Act asumed equal pay for the equal work value and not just for the same work, as women and men are often busy with different tasks.
The Act of 13 July 1983 complete the Act of 1972, it provides criteria to assess “the equal value of the work: jobs that require employees a comparable set of professional knowledge by a title, a diploma or a professional practice, capabilities arising from experience, responsibilities and physical or nervous load are considered as having equal value. and landscape the burden of proof for the benefit of the employee who felt discriminated. These provisions will be strengthened and amplified by the European law.
This European and international legal rule, for work of equal value, equal pay,” is intended to benefit by all women. Collectivebargaining in companies must allow the effective implementation of the principle of equal pay, necessary in any democracyand conducive to social and economic development. The new provisions (Decree of December 18, 2012) are resources toachieve this outcome within a reasonable time.
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