The problem of global change and sustainability already a long ago went through the transformation from a number of the strictly specialized natural-science disciplines in the grade of one of the most sharp problems of the world economy and politics. Affecting global economy regardless of will of the certain states, it is perceived presently as a major issue of new reality to which certain countries and all humanity have to adjust their economic activity. It in any case is related to the deficit of fresh water, problem of hunger and epidemics, natural disaster, migrations, and also by the prospects of development of a number of key industries: energy, transport, building, and the agriculture industry. International negotiations on climatic issue grew into the arena of fight, defining placement of economic and political forces in the world not only for the nearest years, but also on decades, and maybe, for the whole XXI century.
The concepts of Global change and sustainability lately so firmly entered the lexicon first of academic circles, and then average citizens in the whole world that this article of researches inevitably began to be accompanied not only by washing out of strict definitions, but even by apparition of about climatic mythology. Its different directions are cultivated by politicians, playing upon the conflict of interest, inevitably arising around any politicized problem, and also various con-artist from science, refuting the fact of climatic changes with coming of every cold winter or, vice versa, intimidating public with the beginning of new ice-age, cooling-down of Gulf-stream or new world flood.
In academic literature the global change and sustainability are quite often reduced to the global warming, the process of gradual increase of average annual temperature of the Earth atmosphere. According to the record of the Fourth evaluation lecture of the UN commission, for the last 100 (1906 – 2005) the temperature on Earth rose in average approximately on 0.74°С. The term “global warming,” however, gradually virtually disappeared from scientific magazines (that, however, did not affect the frequency of its appearance in the mass media). Scholars say increasingly often that dynamics of the temperature is just a symptom, allowing only to diagnose more fundamental “illness” of the climatic system, reflecting a number of simultaneous and interdependent changes.
In their number:
- transformations in the hydrological mode,
- change of chemical composition and transparency of atmosphere,
- rise of number of weather anomalies.
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