Research Paper on Microsoft Antitrust Issues

Introduction
The
contemporary economy is characterized by the increasing role of large corporations which have already overcome national borders and gradually transforms into multinational corporations.

Remarkably, often large corporations tend to monopolization of the market that naturally produce a negative impact on national economies and national states attempt to undertake certain steps in order to prevent such monopolization. However, such anti-trust practices are often criticized not only by large corporations but also by economists who are not engaged in businesses of some companies. The main reason why such a policy of national states is criticized is the belief that often anti-trust issues are hidden attempts of a state to interfere in the economic life of the country and control certain industries or even the economy at large. Continue reading “Research Paper on Microsoft Antitrust Issues”

Islamic Nationalism Research Paper

Introduction
Religious nationalism tends to place the nation at the forefront of human existence and defines this nation regarding religion. Thus, Islamic, or Muslim, nationalists would most probably represent their nation as a community of Muslims throughout the world, sharing the same religious ideas and thoughts.

However, some researchers of Islam claim that nationalism is “a concept alien to Islam because it calls for unity based on family and tribalistic ties, whereas Islam binds people together on the Aqeedah, that is belief in Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saaw)” (Ahmed, Karim). Nationalism, in their view, has, therefore, no place in Islam, since the religion is supposed to bridge the gap between its believers uniting them in one big family. Even in Iraq, the opposition to the US occupation bridges the more or less tribal or sectarian Sunni-Shiite divide and uniting the population in a struggle against the West. To this one can object, that, first, there have been numerous clashes between Muslim nations in their history (Iraq’s occupation of Kuwait can be one example). Second, unity between Muslims does not dispute the perception of Islamic nationalism as an ideology that draws a broader divide between Muslims and non-Muslims. Continue reading “Islamic Nationalism Research Paper”

Strategic Planning Research Paper

Introduction
Often
managers and entrepreneurs become overwhelmed with the daily tasks and lose the ultimate goals from their sight. That is why preparation and constant review of a strategic plan are highly significant. A strategic plan is only an element of the whole planning process – it serves as the foundation for a business plan and provides a framework for an operational program.

Strategic planning is applicable for for-profit as well as non-profit organizations; in fact, many successful companies already take advantage of the strategic plan. Profit margins in many industries have been significantly reduced and there any numerous possibilities and alternatives of actions– as a result, it is becoming very hard for a company to succeed without a good strategic plan.

The history of strategic planning began in the army. Such terms as objectives, mission, strengths, and weaknesses came to the business environment from the battlefields. The primary goal of strategic planning was and remains to gain competitive advantage. Business managers took some knowledge from military strategists, which was refined during the centuries. Both business and the army strategists try to use their strengths to exploit competitors’ weaknesses. Continue reading “Strategic Planning Research Paper”

Tobacco Product Placement Research Paper

Introduction
Tobacco
companies have found a loophole. As an industry that can claim to be one of the most regulated regarding marketing, tobacco companies have struggled over the years to find new ways to sell their products. While various forms of tobacco advertising have been systematically banned, including TV advertisements, the marketing executives at tobacco companies have found a new friend: product placement. Product placement is the mention or depiction of a brand or product, as it is integrated into the plot of a story, be it a TV show, a movie, a song, or a novel (Karrh, McKee, and Pardun). While traditional advertising has relatively obvious effects on the viewer, product placement is a less intrusive, yet surprisingly effective means to promote a product. This aim of this essay is to examine the effects that tobacco product placement in American TV shows has on the viewing audience. To do so, this essay will include a snapshot of the current presence of product placement in television, examine the depiction of tobacco in U.S. television programming, and review research on the effects of tobacco advertising on the viewing public, with an emphasis on the controversial results of tobacco product placement on children. As a conclusion is reached, the author of this paper hopes to come to an end that either supports or opposes the use of product placement for the promotion of tobacco products. Continue reading “Tobacco Product Placement Research Paper”

The Crusades Research Paper

Introduction
The
Crusades are said to be the series of military campaigns that had a religious character, held by Christian Europe against internal and external enemies. Crusades were directed predominantly against Muslims, even though battles were also fought against pagan Slavs, Hussites, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Cathars, Jews, Mongols, Waldensians, Old Prussians and political popes enemies. Crusade participants, Crusaders, took professions and were given an indulgence for sins in the past. The Crusades primarily had the objective of Jerusalem and the Holy Land recapturing from Muslim governance and were started as the reaction to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for assistance against the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia expansion. This notion is also involved in the description of subsequent and contemporaneous campaigns held up to the 16th century at the area outside the Levant usually against heretics, pagans, and peoples under the prohibition of anathema for a combination of economic, religious, and political reasons. Competition between Christian and Muslim powers also became the result of the alliances between religious groups against their enemies, such as the Christian alliance with the Sultanate of Rum during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusades had long-term economic, political, and social influences, some of which have reached even present times. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political forces, some of the crusade expeditions were rerouted from their primary objectives, such as the Fourth Crusade, the result of which was in the loot of Christian Constantinople and the division of the Byzantine Empire between the Crusaders and Venice. The Sixth Crusade was the first one to establish sail without getting the official Pope blessing. The Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Crusades ended with Hafsid and Mamluk victories, as the Ninth Crusade indicated the end of the Crusades in the Middle East (Shaw, 1963). Continue reading “The Crusades Research Paper”

Juvenile Justice System and Preventing Recidivism Research Paper

Research Question
Briefly discuss and analyze the role of the police, the courts and the Department of Corrections in the juvenile justice system.
Identify and analyze the method you feel best addresses juvenile delinquency regarding reducing future recidivism.

Introduction
The role of the juvenile justice system is different than that of a traditional criminal justice system, in the sense that the aim is centered more around reform and reintegration rather than punishment and degradation. Nevertheless, the actors in this process, such as the police, the courts, and the Department of Corrections, all play a part in reducing future recidivism. This essay will briefly analyze the role of these actors’ and how their methods may differ. The aim is to identify and analyze a trend, which would indicate a preferred method that addresses juvenile delinquency concerning reducing future recidivism.

Police
Police officers are in charge of cleaning up the streets, ridding them of crime. Often, they are the ones who are responsible for detecting deviant behavior. Citizens, who take the initiative to call the police to act, assist much of this detection. The control for selection of what classifies as juvenile delinquency, therefore, shifts slightly towards the public. The job of the police officer is to remain objective when such reporting of an incident occurs. Nevertheless, statistics show that police tend to keep down the official juvenile delinquency rate, reporting very few of adolescent encounters (Black, & Reiss, 1970). The role of the police officer is significant, as they are the ones who decide as to who should be subjected to the juvenile justice system, a system criticized by many.

Courts
In the United States, the 1960s were accompanied by much controversy concerning abusive practices in the juvenile justice system. Abuses included arbitrary and inconsistent decisions that would have otherwise never occurred in an adult court-case. It led to substantial changes in the 1980s and 90s, which fundamentally contradicted the foundation of the juvenile justice system. The move from a less formal arrangement to the mandate that juvenile offenders should have a new set of legal rights, similar to those of adults was an influencing factor for change in public opinion that supported a “get tough” attitude. It led to changes in sentencing and transfer laws, which enabled sentences to start in the juvenile system and continue in the adult system. Such practices, which support the criminalization of delinquency, arguably contradicts the essence of the purpose of the minor system- treatment that prevents and reduces juvenile crime. (Mears, Hay, Marc, & Mancini, 2007).

Corrections
Once an offender is sanctioned, he or she becomes the subject of the state agency that manages juvenile facilities, otherwise known as the Department of Corrections. A Corrections Officer (CO) is mostly the most critical administrator of juvenile delinquents who is required to complete a successful reintegration ceremony. John Braithwaite & Stephen Mugford (1994) conclude that the difference between a degradation ceremony and a reintegration ceremony is the ratio of stigmatic to reintegrative applications. The reintegration process requires an actor to be conscious of the ways he or she integrates shaming and reintegration through communication. A juvenile offender is different from an adult offender in this sense, where the former may require more indication that doing something wrong does not mean they are a terrible person. Considering the importance of the stigmatizing nature associated with a juvenile offender is especially prevalent given the disproportion of stigmatizing to reintegrative meanings communicated through advocates, policymakers, and public opinion (Braithwaite, & Mugford, 1994).

Conclusion
Many believe that moving away from providing treatment in the best interest of young offenders is no longer an option and that revitalizing the individual treatment system is a lost cause. It is mainly due to the public’s concerns with the other aspects of the juvenile justice system, such as the lack of a clear sanctioning framework for juvenile offenders (Bazemore, & Umbreit, 1995). After an analysis of the stakeholders, which includes the police (the identifier), the court (the sanction giver) and corrections department (the reintegration administrator), one can notice a trend of the involvement of the public. Based on the findings, it is essential to consider the ways effects that stigmatic meanings associated with public opinion are transferred to a juvenile offender if the goal is successful reintegration. It indicates that among their original roles and responsibilities within the juvenile system, it is also vital that they act as mediators of communication between the offender and the public.

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‘The Kite Runner’ Research Paper

“The Kite Runner” is a very strong novel. The burning thread of the story is the violence. Violence as a way to subjugate, humiliate, crush, and assert; violence as a manifestation of the ancient pagan past; violence as a reflection of the destroyed spirituality; violence as despair… In addition, the author demonstrates by means of two main characters, Amir and his father, the sense of guilt and redemption. That is the novel shows what once an English aristocrat and writer Lady Mary Wortley Montague said, “While conscience is our friend, all is at peace; however once it is offended, farewell to a tranquil mind” (“Lady Mary Wortley Montague”).

Khaled Hosseini tells about a peaceful prewar Kabul, where lived children who have not known what firing and bombings are. It was the city where people used to go shopping with the sticks instead of the credit cards, “in Kabul, we snapped a tree branch and used it as a credit card” (Hosseini 69) and where the boys were confident that Charles Bronson and John Wayne are the Iranians because all the movies have come from Tehran in Afghanistan and have been already translated into Persian. It meant that all western heroes are the Iranians. Continue reading “‘The Kite Runner’ Research Paper”

Corporate Governance Research Paper

What is Corporate Governance?
Corporations are powerful organizations that act as separate entities from its owners. Hence, contemporary views regarding the role of corporations in society recognize that there is a growing importance for regulations on the manners those companies (in particular their board of directors) behave and on their influence on stakeholders, both direct (e.g. shareholders and workers) and indirect (e.g. the general ethical sphere of a country).

Corporate governance, in a narrow sense, is a control mechanism, which aims to govern corporations and their managers to ensure the protection of owners’ interests. Such protection is necessary due to the separation of ownership and management in corporations, in particular in public companies, where holders of minority shares do not have a direct means to influence managerial decisions. Continue reading “Corporate Governance Research Paper”

Operational Risk in the Financial Industry

Risk
management, as described by the Insurance Institute of America, is the process of making and implementing decisions that will minimize the adverse effects of accidental business losses of an organization. Throughout the past few decades, different industries experienced quicker globalization, deregulation, and a boost of activity surrounding new products, instruments, and services. An inevitable outcome has been an elevated exposure of various sources of risk for trading, construction, insurance and financial institutions. Results of risks occurring in corporations lead to damages and ultimately to financial consequences. The resulting value reduction, or losses can be characterized as financial risk. A large portion of these financial risks is attributed neither to market nor to credit risk, but rather to operational risk. Continue reading “Operational Risk in the Financial Industry”

Overpopulation Research Paper

The
world’s constantly growing population causes many environmental, social and economic problems. People are concerned about the natural resources and are unaware of the fact that overpopulation is a real problem that endangers life on earth as we know it.

Overpopulation leads to famine, pollution, unemployment and poverty, it is a real problem not only for underdeveloped countries, but also threatening the entire human population. Similar to the occurrences in the animal kingdom, the population growth sets a chain of events that can be catastrophic for human life on earth. Continue reading “Overpopulation Research Paper”