Developmental biology is a science involving the greatest range of biological problems. It plays a unifying role for different biological sciences and provides the framework for the integration of molecular biology, cell biology, physiology, anatomy, oncology, immunology, and even evolutionary and ecological research. Study of the embryonic development of organisms is necessary to understand any other fields of biology. Developmental biology is considered basic for studying other biological disciplines.
The development of a new life is a spectacular process, which constitutes a masterpiece of controls temporal and spatial gene expression. The developmental biology focuses on the effect of different genes on phenotypes and epigenetic parameters likely to modify them. The discoveries in this field of investigation to understand development, such chromosomal anomalies anomalies of Down syndrome.
Multicellular organisms are formed as a result of quite a slow process of progressive changes, called development. The multicellular organism development generally starts with is a single cell, a zygote, which divides mitotically and gives the beginning to all the cells of organisms. The science that studies the development of animals, by tradition, is called embryology, because the developing organism from fertilized eggs to the stages before birth is called an embryo or fetus.
However, the development is not ended neither at the time of birth, nor after reaching adulthood. In most organisms, development continues throughout their lives. For example, in humans every day more than a gram of skin cells is replaced, because the old cells are dead, and every minute during life in the bone marrow produces millions of new red blood cells.
Therefore, developmental biology is a science, which includes not only study of embryogenesis, but also other development processes. Research in any area of biology is impossible without knowledge of developmental biology: study of macro-and micro morphological, physiological-biochemical, molecular and genetic processes in developing of individuals, figuring the factors and mechanisms that control the development processes in all stages of ontogenesis of animal, vegetal organisms, as well as single-celled forms. Such a wide coverage is due to the prevalence of elementary and general laws of development processes in nature. The start of the problems development, considered by developmental biology, dates back to the 70-80s of the last century, when the first concept of the cytoembryological mechanisms of heredity, based on the comparative and evolutionary embryology, methodology and key trends in analytical originated and experimental embryology formed. At the beginning of the century the foundation of all the areas of embryology, cytology, genetics, biochemistry was created. This basis allowed subsequently formation of the biology of individual development and the rapid progress of molecular biology has created conditions for further integration.
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