One is a private project, led by Bas Lansdorp, which goal is a flight to Mars, and subsequent establishment of a colony on the planet surface and the broadcasting the whole adventure on television. Gerardt Hooft, the Nobel Prize Winner in Physics in 1999, supports the project.
The appropriate timing for the launch to Mars is the most favorable during the mutual arrangement of planets and will be done using the Hohmann transfer orbit. The launch window opens every 2 years. The flight of a manned ship to Mars will take about 7months (~ 210 days), to minimize the impact of space radiation on organisms of the crew. Cargo mission may last longer, for fuel economy.
The communication with the spaceship are to be done via the communications satellite that will be placed in orbit around the Sun, Mars, and Earth.
The minimum distance from the Earth to Mars is 55 million miles away, the maximum is 400 million kilometers, when Mars is not hidden from Earth by Sun. Signal connection speed is the speed of light, the minimum time before the arrival of the signal is 3 minutes, and the maximum value is 22.
When Mars is hidden from Earth by Sun, communication is not possible. The text, audio, and video messages transmission will be available. Internet use is limited because of the long delay of the signal, but the colonists will have a server full of preloaded data available at any time especially and when the communication with Earth will not be available. Life of the colonists will be broadcast to Earth 24 hours a day.
In 2013, the Mars One began the selection of future astronauts, who will be trained in order to have the necessary skills, will undergo tests for a long staying in the closed space in the spaceship and the colony simulators. The team of astronauts will be composed of both sexes. The minimum age to apply for participation is 18, with the maximum age of 65; citizens of any country can apply to participation. Priority shall be given to highly educated, smart, healthy people with scientific and technical education. Enrollment began in the first quarter of the year 2013. The application process is free; however, to confirm the seriousness of the intentions, the candidate must make a donation in the amount of up to 40 United States dollars, depending on the State in which the individual lives. In June of 2013, more than 85 000 people from all over the Earth registered on the project’s website, expressing thus their desire to fly to Mars, many of them have applied to participate in the selection; in August, the number of applicants exceeded 100 thousand, and later more than 165 thousand. The end of the first phase of selection was scheduled for late August, 2013.
Then, as stated on the official website of the project, there will be local meetings with the participants, in their respective States. The final decision on who would fly to Mars, and about who will be the first man to set foot on Mars, is left to the audience.
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