Term Evolution (LTE) is a project by 3GPP consortium for improvement of existing mobile communication technologies CDMA, UMTS. These improvements can, for example, to make these standards faster, more efficiency, bring down the costs, extend and improve the already rendered services, and also integrate with already existent protocols. Theoretically, LTE data rate reaches up to 326,4 Mbit/s (up to Gbps with the equipment for the commercial use) for the data download and 172,8 Mbit/s for the data upload; while the standard allows 173 Mbit/s for the reception and 58 Mbit/s for the upload.
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LTE is formally not the Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication (DECT) of fourth-generation (4G), as it is does not meet all terms of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in relation to 4G. However, LTE Advanced is ratified by ITU as a standard meeting all requirements of DECT of fourth-generation. Today, LTE is mostly considered as a pre-4G, id est to the preliminary version of the 4th generation standards.
Together with WiMAX version 2 (or simply WiMAX 2 that is more often used as the name of standard of IEEE 802.16m) LTE Advanced are now all standards ratified in IMT-Advanced.
All now existing networks built using LTE have versions 8 and 9.
The radius of a LTE base station coverage area depends on power of transceiver and in theory is unlimited with the raw data rate depending on radio frequency and remoteness from the base station. A theoretical limit for speed of 1 Mbit/s is from 3,2 kilometre (2600 Mhz) to 19,7 kilometre (450 Mhz).
On December, 14, 2009 the Swedish telecommunication company TeliaSonera, together with Ericsson, declared a start to the first in the world of commercial network of standard of LTE in Stockholm and Oslo[. According to the senior vice-president of Ericsson, speed for data downloading in the network of Telia were to be from 20 to 80 Mbit/s.
At the end of November, 2010, the ITU officially adopted LTE-Advanced as a DECT of fourth-generation.
Those who want to write a research paper on Long Term Evolution have to understand that the standard is relatively new and is not widely distributed. It, however, has a future as a standard with great advantages.
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