Avram Noam Chomsky, December 7, 1928, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States is an American linguist, political theorist, and philosopher. He is also the Institute Professor, author of the formal languages classification, called the Chomsky hierarchy. His works on generating grammars have contributed significantly to the decline of Behaviorism and contributed to the development of the cognitive sciences. In addition to the linguistic works, Chomsky is widely known for its radical leftist political views and criticism of the foreign policy of the U.S. Government. The Chomsky considers himself a supporter of anarcho-syndicalism and a libertarian socialist.
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The most famous Chomsky’s work Syntactic structures (1957) has had a huge impact on the development of the science of language in the world; many people say about “Chomsky revolution” in Linguistics (scientific paradigm shift in Kuna’s terms). Perception of ideas created by Chomsky theory of generative grammar is felt even in the areas of Linguistics, who do not accept its main provisions and are sharply critical of the theory.
Chomsky theory evolved over time, but the its basic provision, which, in the opinion of the creator, is the fundament for all others, and is namely the natural-born ability to speak, is left intact. It was first proposed in the early work by Chomsky’s The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory, 1955 (reprinted in 1975), in which he introduced the concept of transformational grammar. The theory considers the expression (sequence of words), corresponding to an abstract “superficial structures, which, in turn, correspond to the more abstract “deep structures.” (In modern versions of the theory, the differences between the superficial and deep structures are largely blurred). Transformational rules together with the structural rules and principles describe both the creation and interpretation of expressions. Using a finite set of grammatical rules and concepts people can create an unlimited number of proposals, including creating the proposals previously made by no one. The ability to structure our expression is innate part of human genetic program. We are unaware of these structural principles as we are unaware of most of their other biological and cognitive characteristics.
Noam Chomsky’s work had a profound influence on modern psychology. From the point of view of Chomsky, Linguistics is a section of cognitive psychology. His work Syntactic structures has helped establish a new link between Linguistics and cognitive psychology and formed the basis of Psycholinguistics. His theory on universal grammar was seen by many as critique of established at that time theories of Behaviorism.
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