Scientific revolution refers to the period of establishing modern science paradigm during the early modern period, when the discoveries in such sciences as mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including anatomy), and chemistry, radically changed the knowledge on nature and society. According to traditional views, scientific revolution begun in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance and continued until the end of the 18th century, influencing such intellectual movement, as the Age of Enlightenment.
While there is no single opinion about the exact dates of this period, the publishing in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus’s book The Rotation of Celestial Spheres and Andreas Vesalius’ The Structure of The Human Body (the same year), usually referred to as events, initiating the scientific revolution.
Sometimes the term “scientific revolution” refers to other periods in history, in which, thanks to the creation of entirely new scientific theories the view on the world has been radically changed.
The scientific revolution includes not only fundamentally new views about the world, thanks to scientific discoveries, but also change the scientific view on how these discoveries were to be made. If abstract logical reasoning and philosophical arguments dominated the Middle Ages, the new key to science was an empirical approach. For us now it is natural, but it was only acknowledged in the 17th century and has spread only in the 18th century.
This was due to the fact that starting with Aristotle, empirical knowledge was of a low value. Human sense organs were considered as bad device to obtain it, so it was considered deceptive. The true and universal knowledge was obtained by pure logic. Deduction was the primary method of learning. The knowledge coming from observation was considered partial, not having universal validity. The inductive method, which implies finding common patterns via independent observation, was adopted only very gradually.
The theoretical basis of the new scientific methods was developed by Francis Bacon, reasoned in his New Organon the transition from the traditional deductive approach (from the general — speculative assumptions or authoritative judgments — the special, i.e., to the fact) to inductive approach (from a specific — empirical fact — to the general, i.e., patterns).
However, many important figures of the scientific revolution shared the respect for the teachings of the ancient common in the Renaissance and even quoted as evidence the ancient theories. The heliocentric view of the world was developed in the Ancient Greece by Aristarchus of Samos.
Now science involved in finding the knowledge. In the Middle Ages it was involved in its careful storage and bequeath. It was stored in the canonical texts that were treated in a certain way and carefully examined. Such texts are the Bible and books by the ancient authors: first of all Aristotle with his logic and scholasticism, Roman law (code of Justinian), the writings of Hippocrates. However, they did not give a response to the new issues raised by the observations. Modern scientific studies have not found a place in the system of University disciplines, because those have been the traditional places for the transfer of knowledge rather than research, and they taught theoretical knowledge, not practical.
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