Space exploration is discovery and exploration of outer space using space technologies. The physical space exploration is made both via manned space flights and automated spacecraft.
Use free sample research papers on the topic to understand that the technical space exploration had been preceded by the development of astronomy and the creation of large and relatively effective missiles in the early XX century. Space exploration was one of the areas of competition between the USSR and the United States during the Cold War. The beginning of the era of space exploration can be seen as the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union October 4, 1957, when the Soviet space program was on the front lines.
The early history of space exploration dates back to March 23, 1881, Mykolaj Ivanovych Kybalchych, while imprisoned, put forward the idea of a missile flying machine with oscillating combustion chamber for thrust vector control. A few days before his execuion Kybalchych developed the original project of aircraft capable of making space flights. His request for transfer of the manuscript to the Academy of Sciences was not satisfied with the investigation Commission, the draft was first published in 1918, in the magazine Byloe (The Past), ? 4-5.
Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was one of the first to put forward the idea of using rockets for space travel. He designed his first interplanetary rocket in 1903. The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, which determines the speed, which an aircraft is developing under the influence of rocket engine thrust is still an important part of the mathematical device used when designing missiles, in particular, in determining the basic mass properties.
In 1920s, the German scientist Hermann Oberth also outlined principles of interplanetary flight.
In 1923, the American scientist Robert Goddard began designing liquid rocket engine and a working prototype was created by the end of 1925 year.
March 16, 1926, he launched the first liquid fuel rocket, which used liquid oxygen and gasoline.
Work of Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, and Goddard was continued by the US, USSR, and Germany missile technology enthusiast groups. In the USSR, the research work was conducted by Group for the Study of Reactive Motion (Moscow) and Gasodynamic laboratory (Leningrad). In 1933, at their base The State Scientific Centre Keldysh Research Center was established.
The German Society of Interplanetary Communications conducted similar work in Germany. March 14, 1931 the Society member Johannes Winkler launched Europe’s first successful liquid fuel rocket. Wernher von Braun also worked in the Society from December 1932, where he began the development of rocket engines for the German army. After the Nazis came to power in Germany, the funds were provided for the development of missile weapons, and in the spring of 1936, the program for the construction of the Peenemünde Rocket Center was endorsed, by which von Braun was appointed as a technical director of the center.
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