Essay: Is it Wrong to Lie?

One of the central concepts discussed in ethics is honesty, which implies always telling truth and never telling lies. Why is it important? When a person is lying it means that he/she is distorting the reality by saying and doing things which don’t correspond to the actual state of affairs. According to the majority of ethical theories, lying is considered to be immoral as it does not correspond to the basic principles of morality. Of course it is very difficult to follow all of the principles of morality; however, it is necessary to avoid lying as much as possible. In my opinion, it is wrong to lie. And it doesn’t matter who tells lies, it is still wrong. Everybody knows that lying is wrong, but still a lot of people continue to lie, while trying to justify their being dishonest. But when somebody else is lying such people would stand up against it, stating that lying is immoral. But how can it be so? One person lies and thinks that it is ok; however, when he/she is told lies, this person thinks that it is wrong. According to Kant, who was the follower of Deontological theory of morality, when a person told a lie he/she “implicitly said that it is morally all right for people to lie” [1], however, nobody would bare hearing lies constantly.

The author of the book “Contemporary Moral Issues: Diversity and Consensus” Lawrence Hinman states that “you cannot approve of your own lying without approving of everyone else’s, and yet the advantage you get depends precisely on other people’s honesty” [1]. Thus, no exceptions can be made when referring to lying. This is one of the basic principles of Kant as well as morality as whole. Continue reading “Essay: Is it Wrong to Lie?”

High Performance Team Essay

It takes a lot of time and effort to make a high-performance team out of a group of people. All people are different, possessing different character traits, interests and likings, thus it is not easy to create a team that will work like a single mechanism, performing simultaneous actions of all of its members.

The main goal of the current paper is to speak about ways how a group can become a high-performance team. While speaking about HPT (high-performance team), it will also analyze certain demographic characteristics and impact of cultural diversity that contribute, or detract from high-performance teams. Continue reading “High Performance Team Essay”

Employee Selection Process Essay

The practice of selecting employees based on one-to-one interview has proved to be an ineffective hiring practice. All over the world, the companies are trying to develop the new techniques for identifying the right candidates for the existing positions. The factors that urge the implementation of new practices include high turnover rate occurring at the first year of employment, high cost of drug-related issues and discrimination-related cases, the need to increase productivity, and the shift from individual work to team building.

Testing a skill or a set of skills is acceptable and the employer does not violate any laws or personal rights of the candidate if decides to test him/her. Testing helps to evaluate the individual’s ability to perform the job, integrate into company’s culture and cooperate with others. Knowledge and proficiency tests are the easiest and the most common tests. They might take the form of the typing test, the performance of the actual task or oral explanation of the processes necessary to accomplish the task. Knowledge testing provides the general ability of the candidate to perform the job at the basic level without further training involved. For example, if the candidate applies for the position of a secretary – the pre-employment testing will include the knowledge of different computer systems, office routine, working with several phone lines and office equipment. Continue reading “Employee Selection Process Essay”

Suicide Risk Assessment Research

Introduction

Suicide has been something that people had committed since the time of human inception ssesnd ever since there had been made approaches to remedy the situation and motivate people to live. Various therapies had been proposed by doctors and philosophers around the world to allow suicidal patients to effectively overcome their obsession with suicidal thoughts. In the following essay I will speak about one of the suicidal clients and explore the formal approach to handling suicidal clients in a greater detail.

Profile and description of a suicidal client: Assessment

I would like to start by saying that the patient, Mark, a 62-year-old white male, currently has several problems that need to be addressed simultaneously in order to ameliorate his health. One first of all needs to assure that he quits smoking, which is a truly serious problem for a person of his age. He is a middle class widower living on his own. He had two married children (son and daughter) who never call him or pay him a visit. Three years ago his wife died of cancer and ever since he had different obsessive thoughts about committing a suicide and leaving this life as early as possible. Continue reading “Suicide Risk Assessment Research”

Civil Military Relations Essay

Introduction

In recent years civil-military relations have undergone significant changes and such a shift produced a serious impact on the development of a certain gap in such relations. At the same time, the growing gap in civil-military relations affects different spheres, including the problem of major weapons procurement programs. It is obvious that there are a lot of reasons that caused such a shift, but, nonetheless, the problems threaten to become as serious as it has never been before since in the current situation the problem of civil control over military is of a paramount importance.

On the other hand, it should be pointed out that there is a number of factors that affected civil-military relations and the problem is very complicated. Obviously, the general shift in civil-military relations results from great changes that recently have occurred in military, civil society, and in the security environment of the US. As a result, the problem of civil-military relations, especially the problem of civil control over military operations, is of a primary concern. On the other hand, civil-military relations have been also negatively impacted by civil run contractors in major weapons procurement programs that deteriorated the situation dramatically. Continue reading “Civil Military Relations Essay”

Indian Dance Essay

Introduction

Historically, dance played an important role in the life of Indian people. It should be said that the earliest dance forms originate to the antiquity. At the same time, dance has never lost its significance to Indian people who were always interested in dance and who made this a real form of art. In fact, Indian culture is characterized by the richness and variety of forms of expression but, at the same time, despite certain variations the traditional Indian culture remains a solid and powerful tool that unites the whole nation.

It should be pointed out that there exist various styles of dance which may vary depending on the region or the origin. Basically, Indian dance is performed on different occasion but, nevertheless, it does not make Indian dance less expressive or significant. In actuality, it is possible to speak about dance in India as a part of cultural identity of Indian people and as a form of communication between Indians which has gradually evolved and transformed in the great art.

It is important to underline that Indian dance is so important to Indians that they never abandon their historical traditions of dance. No wonder that even in the modern world, when Indians are dispersed throughout the world and when Indian communities may be found in absolutely different parts of the world living in different socio-cultural environment, Indian dance still distinguishes Indian people from other communities of the world.

History of Indian dance styles

Speaking about the history of Indian dance, it is necessary to point out that as any other form of art in India, dance was closely related to the religious beliefs of Indian people and actually is considered to be a kind of divine gift. It should be said that the origin of Indian dance styles may be traced back to the Natya Shastra of Bharat Muni about 400 BC. However, this was rather a theoretical representation of Indian dance which had being existed for a long time before their theoretical adaptation.

In actuality, it is possible to refer the origin of Indian dance styles to the epochs as old as 2000-1500 BC. The first development of dance styles is associated with the invasion of India by Aryans who founded a prosperous civilization in India and developed practically all forms of art, including dance. At the same time, any form of art in India was traditionally believed to be of a divine origin and dance was not an exception. the first elaborate and eloquent references to art of dancing are abound in the Rig Veda, containing sacred texts, which was compiled about 1500 BC (Samson 1987). In such a way, it is obvious that dance was one of the ancient forms of art in India.

In Indian tradition, it is believed that dance was created by Lord Brahma (the Creator) as the treatises on dance such as Natya Shastra and Abhinaya Darpana read. In fact, the Natya Shastra is the earliest Indian text in the history of performing arts which is believed to be created by Gods as a form of entertainment. It is worthy of note, the four traditional Veda, containing sacred texts, were not accessible to all castes and, thus certain categories of Indian population were deprived of opportunity to get acquainted with them, while the Natya Shastra was perceived as the fifth Veda accessible to absolutely all people. According to Indian legends, it was the gift of Gods and initially, the Natya Shastra and, thus dance, was supposed to be destined to Gods only, but later were presented to people.

Naturally, in the course of time, views on dance in India evolved as well as dance styles themselves .This is why nowadays it is possible to single out several classical dance forms, including Bharatnatyam, Kuchi[pudi, Mohini Attam, Kathak, Odissi and Manipuri. It is worthy of mention that dance styles in India may vary depending on the region so that different regions have their own unique dance styles, which, nonetheless, basically meet Indian tradition of dance and Indian philosophy of dance.

Purpose of Indian dance

Taking into consideration the significance of dance to Indian people, it seems to be quite natural that the dance serves to different purposes in Indian culture. Obviously, the dance is an ancient form of art and this is why, in the modern context, it is possible to view the dance as a means of preservation of the national culture and traditions. In other words, classical dance forms of India may be viewed as a cultural heritage of Indian people which underlines the uniqueness of Indian people and Indian culture contributing to the development of national and cultural identity of Indian people. To a significant extent, it is due to the dance Indian people living in different parts of the world feel that they belong to the same culture and they are representatives of one and the same nation.

At the same time, the dance in India also serves to more practical purposes. For instance, it is not a secret that Indian dances are very informative and actually the dance for Indians is more than dance or art, it is rather a form of communication since with the help of gestures, movements, dressing, etc. dancers can express their feelings, emotions, intentions, etc. This is why the communicative purpose of Indian dance is obvious.

Furthermore, it is necessary to remember about the traditional purpose of dance that can be traced throughout the history of its development, this is the performance. Unquestionably, traditionally picturesque, emotional and highly informative Indian dances always represented a great performance and served as a means of entertainment of large audience that may be compared to the modern concerts and, in this respect, Indian dances may be viewed as similar to performance art in any other country.

However, often the dance as a performance served to religious purposes which emphasized the divine origin of dance. In this respect, it is worthy of mention that the Shiva temple of Chidambaram was sculpted with 108 Karanas (units of dance in which gesture, step and attitude are coordinated in a harmonious rhythmic movement) on the inner walls of the four gateways leading to the temple (Bowers 1967). In suhc a way, it is obvious that Indian dance was extremely important to the local religion.

Naturally, despite its divine origin, Indian dance also served to human purposes and often it was a perfect way to get socialized or accepted by the community. In this respect, it should be said that the participation in dance was traditionally a symbol of the acceptance of an individual by the community since it was a symbolic unification of the individual with his social environment. Thus, the variety of purposes of Indian dance made it extremely important part of social life of Indian people and its significance is still relevant even nowadays.

Classification of Indian dance, decorations and participants

As Indian dance played an important social role, the fulfillment of its basic purposes implied the existence of a variety of dance forms and styles. Moreover, the huge territory inhabited by Indian people contributed dramatically to the regional diversification of dance forms and styles. This is why among the variety of Indian dance forms it is possible to single out eight classical dance form, which has already been mentioned above. But the more general classification helps structure Indian dance into three major groups.

First of all, these are religious dances which are performed inside the sanctum of the temple. According to the rituals these dance forms were classified as Agama Nartanam. This was a spiritual dance form. Secondly, it is possible to single out dances that fulfilled socio-political function and were performed in royal courts to the accompaniment of classical music and were traditionally called Carnatakam. Finally, it is possible to speak about dances which fulfilled a kind of universal or uniting the community function since the form of dance known as Darbari Aatam appealed more to the commoners and it educated them about their religion, their culture and social life. These dances were performed outside the temple precincts in the courtyard (Auntrose 2002).

However, in order to fully understand the diversity of Indian dance forms, its essence and ambiance, it is necessary to dwell upon the classical Indian dance forms. Primarily, it should be said that practically all Indian classical dances are spiritual. For instance, Kathakali, which literally means story-play, is an elaborate dance depicting the victory of truth over the falsehood. The particular feature of this form of dance is the use of elaborate make-up and colorful costumes which are used to emphasize that the characters are super-beings from another world, and their make-up is easily recognizable as godlike, heroic, or demonic. Another dance form is Mohimi Attam. The theme of this dance is love and devotion to God, who is usuall Vishnu or Krishna. The Mohini Attam dancer maintains realistic make-up and a simple costume. Usually, the dancer is attired in a beautiful white with gold borderKasavu saree of Kerala, with the distinctive white jasmine flowers around a French bun at the side of her head.

Bharata Natyam dance has been handed down through the centuries by dance teachers and the temple dancers. In the sacred environment of the temple these families developed and propagated their heritage. In such a way, this dance was basically performed by this limited group of people while the others were unable to perform this dance.

Kuchipudi, another classical dance, is actually the dance drama that still exists today and can be closely associated with the Sanskrit theatrical tradition. During this dance, the actors sing and dance, and the style is the blend of folk and classical. Probably this is why the technique has greater freedom and fluidity than other dance styles. Kuchipudi was always performed as an offering to the temples.

Odissi dance form is based on the popular devotion to Lord Krrishna and the verses of the Sanskrit play Geet Govinda are used to depict love and devotion to God. The Odissi dancers use their heads, bust and torso in soft flowing movements to express specific mood and emotions. The form is curvaceous, concentrating on the division of the body into three parts: head, bust and torso. This is a soft, lyrical, classical dance which depicts the ambiance of Orissa and the philosophy of its most popular deity. This dance may be considered regional and typical for the state of Orissa.

Kathak is a North Indian dance form which is inextricably bound with classical Hindustani music and the rhythmic nimbleness of the feet is accompanied by the table. Traditionally, the dance was taken to Muslim courts and, consequently, it became more entertaining and less religious in content. The emphasis is traditionally made on the pure dance aspects and less on expression and emotions. Finally, there is Manipuri, a dance style based on circular movements. Specialists (Nayagam 1970) estimate that in ancient texts it has been compared to the movement of planets around the sun.

Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that Indian dance is an ancient form of art that has developed throughout the history of Indian culture and still represents a constituent part of Indian cultural heritage. In actuality, there exist a variety of dance forms and style but basically they preserved their religious origin and, as a rule, Indian dance forms are characterized as highly spiritual. At the same time, the purposes and functions of Indian dance forms also vary substantially, though such a diversity of purposes only underlines the uniqueness of Indian dance which may characterized as highly informative form of performance and art which may be used equally successful to communication, entertainment, socialization of individuals, etc. In such a way, Indian dance is the national symbol, the art that shapes national identity of Indian people.

Bibliography:
Auntrose, K., (2002) Classical Dances and costumes of India. New York: Routledge.
Banerjee, Projesh (1983). Indian Ballet Dancing. New Jersey: Abhinav Publications
Bowers, Faubion (1967). The Dance in India. New York: AMS Press, Inc.
Kilger, George (1993). Bharata Natyam in Cultural Perspective. New Delhi: Manohar American Institute of Indian Studies.
Thacker, Chaula (1989). Introduction to Bharat Natyam. Michigan: Nadanta, Inc.
Nayagam, X.S. Thani (1970). Tamil Culture and Civilization. London: Asia Publishing House.
Samson, Leela (1987). Rhythm in Joy: Classical Indian Dance Traditions. New Delhi: Lustre Press Pvt. Ltd.

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Homo Neanderthalensis Essay

Early human, a Neanderthal or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, existed between 130,000 and 30,000 years ago and is generally considered to be a relative class of Homo sapiens sapiens. There is much more information about the Neanderthals than about other prehistoric species and that is partly because of the fact that their fossils are rather new as well as it is caused by the factor of the purposeful burial of their dead. Many sites where Neanderthal fossils were found include the remains of individuals who were intentionally placed in graves that were dug into the ground. Some of those burials even showed evidence of being adorned with offerings, and that represents consciousness and recognition of life and death, that was practiced by the Neanderthals. (Background: Early finds and distribution) Continue reading “Homo Neanderthalensis Essay”

Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo Summary

Introduction

Though the humanity has already reached the highest point of its developed as we all live in the era of advanced technologies, offering people all modern conveniences; in the era of freedom which has touched almost all countries in the world showing good example of developed countries to the developing one, people still did not learn a very important lesson “who to live in peace”. Being one of the major disasters, wars and military conflicts, bring a lot of sorrow, pain and suffering to thousands of people, who consciously or unconsciously become participants and victims of military conflicts. The saddest thing about it is that in most cases wars bring significant losses among innocent people, while those who provoked the beginning of conflicts continue to live, making the humanity wondering why the feeling of guilt or feeling of hatred towards them does not kill. There are various reasons causing the beginning of military conflicts. In Balkans, the main reasons of all conflicts are always the same. People, following the interests of politicians of their own interests, start the conflicts there because of differences of religions (Christianity and Islam) or because one nation occupies the territory of the state historically belonging to the other nation. Reasons can be different, but outcome is always the same – suffering of people. Political or terrorist leaders who are at the head of the conflicts usually do their best to hide it from international community, which might ruin their plans by interfering. However, it is impossible to keep in secret the deaths of thousands of people. One of the most acute issues in Balkans is ethnic cleansing of people, which took place in Kosovo, Yugoslavian province, which is mostly inhabited by Albanians. Exactly Albanians became the subject of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.

The main goal of designing current study is to speak about major issues relevant to ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. The paper will focus on both Albanians and Yugoslavians as the main participants of the conflict. Reasons, leaders and impact of ethnic cleansing will also be analyzed further in the study.

1. Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo: General Overview

Speaking about ethnic cleansing requires clear understanding of what ethnic cleansing is. Thus, it is important to define the term ethnic cleansing, which appeared in the early 1990s in Yugoslavia. Ethnic cleansing is a process of deportation of a certain ethnic group from a country or area, which is inhabited by other ethnic group. The main goal of such a policy is to “cleanse” the territory from people of certain ethnic group, claiming that this territory does not belong to them, but to other people. Very often ethnic cleansing is accompanied by extensive violation of human rights as people are forced to leave their homes and escape to nowhere without any guarantee that they will be welcomed at some other places. Ethnic cleansing is conducted in a form of military conflict, which means that people are not only forced to leave their houses, but their principal right – right to live – is put under danger. So, why does it all happen? There are various reasons to start a military conflict, however, as the history of the modern world shows one of the mostly widespread causes of wars and conflicts is religion. Despite of the fact that the main purpose of religion is to comfort people’s souls, on the contrary, it leads to various misunderstandings resulting in conflicts and people’s suffering. In former Yugoslavia, which was composed of six states and was inhabited by both Serbs and Albanians, two main religions – Islam and Christianity – exist now and existed in the period of ethnic cleansing. It happened so historically that on the territory of Kosovo, which was originally inhabited by Serbs hundreds of years ago, after certain historic events another nation known as Albanians came to live there. As the author of the article “The War In Kosovo: Pacifism & Ethnic Cleansing” Eileen Egan noted: “The Serbs, fiercely loyal to the Orthodox church, see in their Muslim neighbours a reminder of the Serb defeat by Muslim armies six hundred years ago and their long travail in subjection to the Ottoman Empire” [1]. After the World War II Albanian population started to exceed in quantity the amount of Serbian population, threatening the integrity of the country. The reason of such a threat was that Serbs were Christian and Albanians were Muslim, and because the followers of each religion were opposed to either Christianity or to Islam, it gave the first push to ethnic conflicts in the country. Indeed, religion is one of the major factors, which helps either to create a state or to ruin it. Because the most sacred places of Serbian population are situated in Kosovo they so eagerly wanted to return it. However, some scientists argue that “the conflict over Kosovo was, from the beginning, a conflict between the “Serbian/Yugoslav governments and Albanian population in Kosovo for territory and political power” [2]. There is no doubt that religion could not be only one factor influencing the conflict in Yugoslavia. When an ethnic conflict obtains such significant dimensions, it is necessary to look deeper into it, after which it becomes clear that political leaders are not only involved in the conflict, but they are the principal makers of it. Because of the events taking place on the territory of Kosovo at the end of the 20th century, it “has captured the attention of policymakers, ethicists, journalists, peace and human rights activists, military analysts, and international relations scholars” [3], who started to examine the causes and outcomes of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. It is also important not to forget the impact of international community on events in Kosovo and the situation with Albania. So, another important factor which had a large impact on the relationship of Serbians and Albanians was the influence of international community on Albania, which was obviously depended “on some western powerful states, if not the entire international community, was also a factory for its week position towards Albanians in Yugoslavia” [2].

The main purport of ethnic cleansing was to expel Albanians, 90 per cent of which are Muslims, from Kosovo “in an ethnic cleansing devised by the regime of Slobodan Milosevic and carried out by the army of Serbia” [1]. Former leader of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milosevic, created such a regime in Yugoslavia under which thousands of Albanians were forced to leave the homes. Multiple cases of violence by Serbian soldiers, including executions, massacres, rapes and pillage, have been reported while the ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. However, Albanians did not wish just to escape the territory, they wished to fight back. It is historically proved that “the short period of Albanian domination of Kosovo was characterized by discrimination over the Serbian minority (during the First and Second World War and after June 1999)” [2].

Ethnic cleansing of Albanians, which took place in Kosovo, a province of former Yugoslavia, started long before it has been reported to the international community. By 1999 there have been multiple attacks on Albanians, which have become even more severe in March 1999, when “over 1,200 residential areas, including over 500 villages were burned” [6]. In order to protect the houses of Serbians, “Serbian civilians in many towns painted a Cyrillic “S” on their doors so that Serbian forces would not attack their homes by mistake”[2]. The destruction of settlements was so terrible that there was no chance for Albanians living in Kosovo to return. Serbian soldiers did not care whether they were destroying the houses where women and children lived, thus, their cruelty amazed everybody, especially the cruelty of the former President of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milosevic, who has been accused of many crimes and died while waiting for passing of the sentence.

2. Major Racial Issues of Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo

Having discussed what reasons make people be involved into ethnic cleansing it is necessary to take a closer look at ethnic cleansing in Kosovo from the viewpoint of Albanians and to focus on their major racial issues. It wasn’t until March 1999 when the violence against Albanians became especially severe. As a result of it and “following mounting repression of ethnic Albanians and the breakdown of negotiations between separatists and the Serbs, NATO began bombing military targets throughout Yugoslavia, and thousands of ethnic Albanians were forcibly deported from Kosovo by Yugoslav troops” [7]. So, what happened in Kosovo that roused the indignation of the international community? In March 1999 there were mass executions of Albanians living on the territory of Kosovo. In order to prove or refute these facts investigations have been conducted, which revealed mass graves of Albanians. Though, Serbs “took steps to destroy forensic evidence of their crimes” [6], the results of investigation showed 2,100 bodies, which “have been found by the ICTY among the some 200 atrocity sites” [6]. By 1999 almost one million of Kosovo Albanians escaped the territory. And though it is very hard to give the exact number of victims “whose bodies have been burned or destroyed may never be known, but enough evidence has emerged to conclude that probably around 10,000 Kosovo Albanians were killed by Serbian forces” [6]. Thus, almost 90 per cent of Albanians who used to inhabit the province have been expelled from it as a result of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.

As it has been stated above, Serbians used violent methods of expelling Albanians from their homes. They burnt their houses without any warning, making Albanians leave as soon as possible. Before burning the houses they used to rob them and take any subjects that had some value. Serbian soldiers were accused by the victims of beatings, harassing, and extortion of all Albanians and rape of ethnic Albanian women. According to the U.S. State Department Report conducted on ethnic cleansing in Kosovo: “Kosovo Albanian women reportedly were separated from their families and sent to an army camp near Djakovica, where they were raped repeatedly by Serbian soldiers” [6]. Though not all facts could be gathered on this subject, it is possible to assume that Albanian women indeed suffered very much from the Serbian soldiers, who violated not only their rights but also their dignity. As it is stated in the U.S. State Departement Report: “medical facilities have reported abortions among refugee women who reported being raped by Serbian forces” [6]. Another form of violence against Albanians was identity cleansing, which is proved by multiple reports stating that “Serbian forces confiscating identity and property documents including passports, land titles, automobile license plates, identity cards, and other forms of documentation from Kosovar Albanians as they were forced out of villages or as they crossed international borders into Albania or Macedonia” [6]. The main reason of such behavior from the side of Serbs is their desire to destroy Albanians as nation. That’s why the destroyed everything: Albanian houses, schools, places of worship, hospitals and other attributes of their identity.

Seeing what was happening in Kosovo NATO came to a decision to intervene into the conflict, and in 1999 it starting the bombing of Kosovo. Some view NATO’s intervention in Kosovo conflict as positive as it was designed to “prevent crimes against humanity” [4], while others think that such an intervention provoked even more violent actions from the side of Serbian forces. After signing the agreement about withdrawal of Serbian soldiers from the territory of Kosovo, multiple reports on violence still continued to appear. While withdrawing from Kosovo, “Serbian troops and militias continued to rape women, loot property, burn homes and mosques, and murder Kosovar Albanians” [6]. After Serbian soldiers left Kosovo, those Albanians who managed to survive the ethnic cleansing returned to their homes. And now it was the turn of Serbs to be “fearful of retribution from returning Kosovo Albanians and the influence of former members of the UCK” [6]. For this reason military troops had to be left in Kosovo to prevent the population from further violence.

In 2000 Slobodan Milosevic, the former president of Yugoslavia, “was turned over to the war crimes tribunal by the Serbian government” [7]. And in 2002, two countries Serbia and Montenegro established an agreement and developed a new constitution, which was approved in 2003. Thus, it was the end of Yugoslavia’s existence, “which had essentially ceased to exist in the early 1990s, disappeared even as an official name for the two-republic federation that survived” [7].

3. Yugoslavians in the Conflict with Albanians

As it has been stated above the conflict in Kosovo, which resulted in ethnic cleansing against Albanians, was originally caused by the differences in religions and certain historic events, which took place on this territory. According to historic evidence Kosovo was originally inhabited by Serbs, who were trying in the 20th century to expel Albanians from their lands. However, for several centuries Kosovo has been a home for Albanians too, who even started to prevail Serbian population in quantity. It is sad to note that the end of international conflict did not put the end of violence in Kosovo. Though the majority of Serbs had withdrawn from Kosovo, ethnic cleansing did not end there and was again associated with much violence and people suffering. At this time, the violence affected both Albanians and Serbs, however “the Serbs and other minorities have suffered most heavily” [6]. Wishing to revenge for their suffering, Albanians wanted the Serbs to suffer as well. For this reason, “Serbs have been subjected to kidnapping, murder, arson, grenade attacks, shootings, and a variety of other intimidation tactics, including bombing places of worship” [6]. Albanians destroyed dozens of Orthodox Churches, which belonged to Serbian population. According to the U.S. State Department Report, there were “estimated 200,000 Serbs” [6] in Kosovo before 1999. After 1999 only 97,000 Serbs remained there. NATO and International community felt its responsibility for what was going in Kosovo. For this reason, NATO and especially the United States offered its support by providing Kosovo with logistical and financial assistance, police training and etc. The UN has created special military body, known as Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC) to prevent further violence on the territory of Kosovo.

It is clear that not only Serbs are responsible for the violence in Kosovo, their political leader, Slobodan Milosevic, is also the one who was blamed for killing and torturing thousands of innocent people. Not all Serbs were engaged into ethnic cleansing, thus, “individual Serbs should not be asked to bow under the weight of a corporate guilt for what Milosevic and his supporters did” [5]. After the agreement and deployment of NATO troops, violence did not end, because according to many sources “NATO and the U.N. have failed to provide security” [5] for Serbs, who continued to live in Kosovo. Though Albanians claim that their “aim is not a state without Serbs but statehood simpliciter” [6], they continue to violate the rights of Serbs, whose lives they make intolerable in Kosovo. Kosovo government does very little to prevent violence, as the policy in Kosovo is not based on democracy by on “clan loyalty” [5]. According to the author of the article “The Fate of Serbs in Kosovo” Jason Lee Steorts: “Albanian politics in Kosovo is frequently violent and hugely influenced by organized crime” [5]. For this reason, it is impossible to say that ethnic cleansing in Kosovo is ended. It did end at the level of two nations, but it does continue at an individual level, as the common language between Albanians and Serbs can still not be found.

Life in Kosovo did not stabilize at the economic sphere either, because the large segment of economy is shadow. According to statistic evidence “more than 50 percent of economy is informal, and real unemployment may run as high as 30 percent” [5]. Economy of Kosovo was not successful at privatizing state industries, thus, further development of economy is under big question mark.

4. Application of Scientific Theories to the Main Issues of Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo

All scientists and politicians agreed that events, which took place on the territory of Kosovo, can be called as “ethnic cleansing” of Albanians by Serbs. As a term, “ethnic cleansing” appeared to describe “massive crimes and deportation of the Bosnian Muslims” [2]. As compared to genocide ethnic cleansing appears to be more humane, as it means “forceful deportation from inhabited lands” [2], while genocide “refers to the complete or partial physical extermination of certain national, ethnic or religious groups” [2]. Being one of the types of manifestation of ethnic conflicts, ethnic cleansing is also a very violent method of dealing with these conflicts. Though, in theory it refers only to deportation of people from certain territory, in reality it is accompanied by extensive usage of violent actions, which have been discussed above by the example of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. It is statistically proved that birth rate of Albanians was significantly higher than birth rate of Serbs, who became fearful of it and treated as “biological genocide” over Serbs” [2]. This was basically one more important reason that caused ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.

Scientists have tried to apply several theoretical approaches to ethnic conflict in Yugoslavia. However, none of them was practically used by Yugoslavian government and Serbs.

Ethnic conflicts can be solved by means of Integration of Assimilation. Both of these strategies are used to eliminate cultural and religious differences existing in different ethnic groups as a means to solve ethnic conflict. The usage of both integration and assimilation was rather effective in other countries; however, it was not the case in Kosovo, where the government chose forcible methods of expelling Albanians from their homes. Integration refers to acceptance of one ethnic group by the other one as a part of their nation. It did not happen in Yugoslavia, where Albanians have been always considered as outsiders. The theory of assimilation is somewhat different from integration. The policy of assimilation is designed for “replacing the existing identity with a new one, or creating a new identity derived from all ethnic groups” [2]. The government of Yugoslavia did not succeed in implementing any of these strategies, though it did not even try very hard. The policy of assimilation was “inconsistent with the Saint Germaine Agreement that Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes had signed, in order to protect and promote the rights of ethnic minorities according to international covenants” [2]. However, the government did not really care about ethnic minorities and “the protection of minority rights in Kosovo had never been a characteristic of Yugoslave/Serbian governments during this period and the state elite was acting against the League Nations Treaty on the Protection of Minorities” [2].

More suitable theory that can be applied to the ethnic conflict in Kosovo is the Power Conflict Theory, which reflects the conflict of Serbian and Albanian government, resulting in ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.

Conclusion

Having spoken about ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, its causes and results, it is necessary to make a conclusion. Ethnic cleansing in Kosovo conducted by Serbs against Albanians and later Albanians against Serbs has aroused mass interest and indignation of other countries as a response to violent actions in Kosovo. The reports and news on the events taking place on the territory of Kosovo were shocking and horrifying not only because thousands of Albanians were forced to leave their homes, having no shelters even temporarily, but also because the deportation of Albanians was accompanied by mass extortion, burning of houses, killing, rapes and other forms of violence against Albanian population. This mass violation of human rights happened because of the differences in religious and historic background of Serbs and Albanians, and because of differences in interests of Albanian and Serbian government. Exactly the latter headed by Slobodan Milosevic is responsible for mass deportation of Albanians and violation of their rights.

Bibliography
Egan, E. (1999). The War in Kosovo: Pacifism & Ethnic Cleansing. Commonweal, Vol. 126.
Hoxhaj, Enver. (2005). The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation in Kosovo. Retrieved December 2, 2006. www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/global/Publications/DiscussionPapers/DP39.pdf
Mertus, J.A. (2001). Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo. Ethics & International Affairs, Vol. 15.
Shank, G. (1999). Commentary: Not a Just War, Just a War – NATO’s Humanitarian Bombing Mission Journal article by Gregory Shank. Social Justice, Vol. 26.
Steorts, J.L. (2005). Ethnic Cleansing, Continued: The Fate of Serbs in Kosovo National Review, Vol. 57.
Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo: An Accounting. December 1999. Retrieved December 2, 2006.
http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/kosovoii/homepage.html
Yugoslavia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2004.

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